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Table 2 National-averaged trends magnitude (ppb per year ± standard deviation) of annual ozone mean concentrations at urban and rural background monitoring stations in Europe

From: Urban population exposure to air pollution in Europe over the last decades

Countries Time period References n Urban stations
Europe 1995–2012 [78] 289  + 0.27 ± 0.10
Austria 1995–2014 [62] 6  + 0.17 ± 0.12
Belgium 2  + 0.08 ± 0.15
Germany 60  + 0.19 ± 0.06
Greece 3  + 0.18 ± 0.50
Netherlands 5  + 0.19 ± 0.11
Slovenia 2  + 0.14 ± 0.08
Spain 12  + 0.36 ± 0.24
Sweden 3  + 0.37 ± 0.10
Switzerland 11  + 0.28 ± 0.11
United Kingdom 12  + 0.21 ± 0.12
France 1999–2012 [64] 179  + 0.14 ± 0.19
France 2000–2010 [46, 65] 29  + 0.10 ± 0.30
Greece 3  + 0.41 ± 0.15
Italy 20  + 0.04 ± 0.30
Portugal 8  + 0.40 ± 0.33
Spain 14  + 0.48 ± 0.53
Europe 2000–2014 [8] 260  + 0.05 ± 0.13
Belgium 2005–2014 [59] 2  + 0.42 ± 0.05
France 136  + 0.31 ± 0.42
Germany 79  + 0.09 ± 0.17
Greece 4  + 0.85 ± 0.43
Italy 50  + 0.43 ± 0.84
Portugal 2  + 0.48 ± 0.12
Spain 77  + 0.54 ± 0.73
United Kingdom 29 - 0.18 ± 0.34
Germany 2005–2018 [59] 79  + 0.18 ± 0.15
  1. The studies were selected for more than 10-year time-series of ozone data, for stations with at least 75% of validated hourly data over the time period, and with a significant trend, i.e., with a p value < 0.05. Number of stations (n, with n ≥ 2)