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Table 1 Parameters affecting microfiber (MF) release from clothes during the laundry cycle

From: Analysis of the polyester clothing value chain to identify key intervention points for sustainability

Textile parameters Fiber type Hydrophilic fibers seem to release more MF than hydrophobic ones
Tensile strength might also affect MF breakage
[32, 83, 94]
Yarn characteristics Yarns with a higher twist and longer filaments seems to shred fewer MF [84, 85, 88]
Fabric structure Thermally cut fabrics shred fewer MF than mechanically cut fabrics
Influence of knitted or woven construction is unclear
[84, 88, 92]
Age of fabric Influence is unclear because garments did not undergo realistic aging [83,84,85,86, 89,90,91]
External parameters Type of washing machine Vertical axis seems to contribute to higher MF release, although it may be related to the volume of water used [65, 91]
Water volume Higher water-to-garment ratio seems to increase MF release [32, 84, 90]
Speed No apparent effect on MF release [90]
Total duration No apparent effect on MF release [89]
Temperature No apparent effect on MF release [83, 86, 88,89,90]
Drying MF release by tumbler dryer seems to be higher than during washing. Difference in MF release between tumbler drying and air drying is unclear [83]