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Table 1 Characteristics of residues detected in the current study: Pesticide category and active ingredient, substance class, frequency of detection (Freq.) and maximum concentration (Max. conc.) in current samples, categorisations regarding carcinogenicity (Carc.), endocrine disruptor/activity (EDC), volatility and predicted mean dissipation half-life (HL; upper CI for residues with wide HL ranges in brackets)

From: Year-round pesticide contamination of public sites near intensively managed agricultural areas in South Tyrol

Pesticide category/detected residue Substance class Freq. Max. conc. (mg kg−1) Carc. [56] EDCa [94, 95] Volatilityb [94] HLc [59]
Herbicides
 Oxadiazon Oxidiazole 1 0.64 Cat1 Low 3
Insecticides
 Chlorpyrifos Organophosphate 2 0.71 Cat3 Low 4
 Chlorpyrifos-methyl Organophosphate 4 0.06 Cat2 Low 3
 Imidacloprid Neonicotinoid 5 0.03 Cat3 Low 4 (29)
 Methoxyfenozide Diacylhydrazine 5 0.03 Cat2 Low 7
 Phosmet Organophosphate 8 0.68 Cat3 Low 2
 tau-Fluvalinate Pyrethroid 1 0.01 Cat3 Low 3
 Thiacloprid Neonicotinoid 2 0.01 2 Cat3 Low 4
Fungicides
 Ametoctradin Triazolopyrimidine 1 0.01 Low
 Boscalid Carboxamide 1 0.04 Cat1 Low 7
 Bupirimate Pyrimidinol 1 0.03 2 Cat3 Low
 Captan Phthalimide 22 0.46 2 Cat3 Low 5
 Cyflufenamid Amidoxine 2 0.01 Low
 Cyprodinil Anilinopyrimidine 3 0.02 Cat3 Low 6
 Difenoconazole Triazole 10 0.12 Cat3 Low 5
 Diphenylamine Amine 2 0.51 Low
 Dodine Guanidine 12 0.23 Low 3
 Fluazinam Phenylpyridinamine 19 0.24 Cat2 Low 4 (69)
 Fludioxonil Phenylpyrrole 9 0.04 Cat3 Low 5
 Fluxapyroxad Pyrazolium 4 0.09 Low
 Folpet Phthalimide 5 0.15 2 Cat3 Low 5
 Meptyldinocap Dinitrophenol 5 0.15 Cat2 Low 3
 Penconazole Triazole 3 0.04 Cat3 Low 8
 Penthiopyrad Carboxamide 2 0.10 Cat2 Low
 Propiconazole Triazole 1 0.05 Cat2 Low 5
 Pyraclostrobin Strobilurin 1 0.01 Cat3 Low 4
 Pyrimethanil Anilinopyrimidine 1 0.03 Cat3 Low 5
 Quinoxyfen Quinoline 2 0.02 Low 6 (110)
 Spiroxamine Morpholine 1 0.02 Cat2 Low 10
 Tebuconazole Triazole 1 0.04 Cat1 Low 8
 Tetraconazole Triazole 1 0.01 Cat1 Low 5
 Zoxamid Benzamide 1 0.02 Cat3 Low
Preservative agent
 2-phenylphenol Phenole 1 0.02 High
  1. No data available/not listed = “–”
  2. aED category 1: confirmed in animal studies, ED category 2: in-vitro study confirmed, ED category 3: endocrine active or potential disruptive, according to the structure of chemical substance and biochemical properties
  3. bRenewal Assessment Reports (RARs) including vapor pressures documented by the Reporting Member State in the process of EU approval for pesticides
  4. cMean predicted dissipation HL for residues were rounded to full days. Additionally, very high maximum HLs (> 25 days) are listed in brackets