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Table 5 Ranges of yearly average concentrations of TN in the effluent of the WWTP [12]

From: Developing EU environmental standards for the food, drink and milk industries: key environmental issues and data collection

FDM subsector Yearly average TN concentration (mg/l)
Direct discharge Indirect discharge Landspreading
Animal feed 2.4–12 89–231 NI
Brewing 4.8–25 26.5–81.5 NI
Dairies 1.1–23.4 38–214 4.2–111
Ethanol production NI NI NI
Fish and shellfish processing NI NI NI
Fruit and vegetables 0.4–22.8 10.2 9–105
Grain milling NI NI NI
Meat processing 2.4–17.9 33–358 53
Oilseed processing and vegetable oil refining 0.9–15.3 2.5–110 NI
Olive oil processing and refining NI 4 NI
Soft drinks and nectar/juice 1.3–4.1 10 11.7
Starch production 3–13.4 4.3 55–2 150
Sugar manufacturing 1.7–26.3 265 86
All FDM subsectors 0.4–26.3 4–358 4.2–2150
  1. NI no information provided