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Table 4 Ranges of yearly average concentrations of COD in the effluent of the WWTP [12]

From: Developing EU environmental standards for the food, drink and milk industries: key environmental issues and data collection

FDM subsector Yearly average COD concentration (mg/l)
Direct discharge Indirect discharge Landspreading
Animal feed 19–155 778–8890 NI
Brewing 16–85 111–5779 NI
Dairies 8–147 40–4475 20.1–1001
Ethanol production 41–65 NI NI
Fish and shellfish processing NI 5741 NI
Fruit and vegetables 13–187 2319 2205–5402
Grain milling NI NI NI
Meat processing 22–259 406–3800 1692
Oilseed processing and vegetable oil refining 15–363 53–5561 NI
Olive oil processing and refining NI 53–645 NI
Soft drinks and nectar/juice 6–78 1537–3253 3322
Starch production 31–284 76.25 513–11,333
Sugar manufacturing 22–132 4675 5556
All FDM subsectors 6–363 40–8890 20.1–11,333
  1. NI no information provided