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Table 3 Imidacloprid concentrations determined at various sampling locations in the framework of the European Watch List

From: Development of an aquatic exposure assessment model for Imidacloprid in sewage treatment plant discharges arising from use of veterinary medicinal products

Sampling location Full name of sampling location Land use Spatial location (latitude/longitude) Mean imidacloprid concentrations in µg/L [number of measurements] Minimum concentration of imidacloprid in µg/L Maximum concentration of imidacloprid in µg/L
2016 2017 2018 2016 2017 2018 2016 2017 2018
England
 Sincil Sincil Dyke Washingborough Wastewater treatment plant 53.225671, − 0.480368 0.035 [2] 0.076 [1] 0.05 [3] 0.01 0.076 0.036 0.059 0.076 0.059
 Somerhill Somerhill Stream Old Forge FM Wastewater treatment plant 51.162241, 0.278286 0.14 [2] 0.19 [1] 0.14 [5] 0.089 0.19 0.074 0.18 0.19 0.2
 Tame River Tame—U/S Coleshill stw Wastewater treatment plant 52.520587, − 1.718607 0.037 [2] 0.054 [1] 0.07 [3] 0.012 0.054 0.067 0.062 0.054 0.074
 Wyke Wyke Beck below Knostrop Works FE Wastewater treatment plant 53.771364, − 1.475679 0.044 [2] n.a n.a 0.026 n.a n.a 0.061 n.a n.a
 Chelt River Chelt Princess Elizabeth Way Urban 51.912862, − 2.099967 0.015 [2] 0.0097 [1] n.a 0.001 0.0097 n.a 0.03 0.0097 n.a
 Irwell River Irwell at Old Ringley Bridge Urban 53.543906, − 2.358737 0.012 [1] n.a 0.023 [1] 0.012 n.a 0.023 0.012 n.a 0.023
 Ancholme (Horkstow) R.Ancholme Horkstow Bottom Industrial 53.658336, − 0.528363 0.008 [2] 0.0079 [1] n.a 0.004 0.0079 n.a 0.012 0.0079 n.a
 Blyth Blyth at Bedlington Bridge Industrial 55.126473, − 1.583458 0.0005 [1] 0.0032 [1] n.a 0.001 0.0032 n.a 0.001 0.0032 n.a
 Ancholme (Cadney) R.Ancholme Cadney Bottom Arable 53.512942, − 0.491962 n.a 0.0051 [3] n.a n.a 0.0041 n.a n.a 0.0063 n.a
 Waveney R.Waveney Ellingham Mill Arable 52.471099, 1.479204 0.019 [51] 0.014 [24] 0.01 [11] 0.005 0.0068 0.004 0.074 0.036 0.024
 Wensum R.Wensum Seet Briar RD.BR Arable 52.638365, 1.258888 0.015 [52] 0.011 [21] 0.0078 [17] 0.0065 0.0084 0.0038 0.026 0.028 0.01
 Ouse (Roxton) River Ouse Roxton Lock Arable/Grassland 52.166844, − 0.306319 0.049 [35] 0.029 [35] 0.028 [27] 0.01 0.015 0.0047 0.082 0.053 0.046
 Ouse (Skelton) River Ouse at Nether Poppleton (Skelton) Arable/Grassland 53.991187, − 1.13455 0.014 [21] 0.0049 [4] 0.031 [3] 0.001 0.0029 0.0016 0.11 0.0062 0.083
 Lugg River Lugg at Mo Grassland 52.033862, − 2.628223 n.a 0.0050 [7] n.a n.a 0.0017 n.a n.a 0.0016 n.a
 Teme River Teme at Powick Grassland 52.170057, − 2.241934 0.007 [1] 0.021 [1] n.a 0.007 0.021 n.a 0.007 0.021 n.a
 Test River Test Longbridge Grassland 50.958959, − 1.495922 0.0086 [1] 0.0058 [1] n.a 0.0086 0.0058 n.a 0.0086 0.0058 n.a
 Ivel R.Ivel Tempsford Depot Ft.Br n.a 52.165758, − 0.303948 n.a n.a 0.045 [33] n.a n.a 0.013 n.a n.a 0.093
 Nene R.Nene Wansford Old Rd.Br n.a 52.579088, − 0.414965 n.a n.a 0.028 [38] n.a n.a 0.0093 n.a n.a 0.047
Wales
 Mawddach River Mawddach Ty’n Y Groes Hotel Bridge Background 52.792951, − 3.885728 0.0005 [1] No access 0.0005 [1] 0.001 No access 0.001 0.001 No access 0.001
 Alyn River Alyn at Ithels Bridge Wastewater treatment plant 53.100250, − 2.912500 n.a No access 0.059 [1] n.a No access 0.059 n.a No access 0.059
 Trothy Trothy at Onen Arable 51.827378, − 2.832079 0.0012 [1] No access 0.0005 [1] 0.0012 No access 0.001 0.0012 No access 0.001
 Towy Nantgaredig Towy Nantgaredig, near Carmarthen Livestock 51.8608 − 4.18971 0.0005 [1] No access 0.0005 [1] 0.001 No access 0.001 0.001 No access 0.001
Scotland
 Dubh Loch Dubh Loch Outlet Background 56.929703, − 3.254838 0.0073 [2] n.a n.a 0.001 n.a n.a 0.014 n.a n.a
 Clyde River Clyde Wastewater treatment plant 55.8523, − 4.24593 0.0019 [2] 0.009 [1] 0.0005 [1] 0.001 0.009 0.001 0.0033 0.009 0.001
 Ugie River Ugie Arable 57.523, − 1.83385 0.0005 [1] n.a 0.0005 [1] 0.001 n.a 0.001 [1] 0.001 n.a 0.001 [1]
 Ythan River Ythan Arable 57.3637, − 2.07227 0.0005 [1] n.a 0.0005 [1] 0.001 n.a 0.001 [1] 0.001 n.a 0.001 [1]
North Ireland
 Dunnyboe Dunnyboe Burn at Dunnyboe Bridge Background 54.8384, − 7.28512 n.a 0.0005 [1] 0.0005 [1] n.a 0.001 0.001 n.a 0.001 0.001
 Lagan River Lagan at Stranmillis Weir Station Wastewater treatment plant 54.5685, − 5.92689 0.0057 [2]a 0.0005 [2] 0.0005 [2] 0.0043a 0.001 0.001 0.007a 0.001 0.001
 Quoile Quoile River at Quoile Bridge Arable 54.344700, − 5.711970 0.0039 [1]a 0.0005 [2] 0.0005 [2] 0.0039a 0.001 0.001 0.0039a 0.001 0.001
  1. As otherwise noted, the concentrations were taken from EIONET [13]. The LOQ of all measurements was 0.001 µg/L. Samples are reported as half LOQ if detected but below the LOQ
  2. n.a. not available, No access No access permission on [13]
  3. aValue taken from [14]