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Table 2 Interpretive source/material categories to which grain populations have been assigned, together with diagnostic or common true phase assemblage and translation to PARC groups (as listed in Table 1)

From: A method for analysis of nuisance dust from integrated steel works: chemical and mineralogical characteristics of contributing sources

Source/material ID Description Diagnostic/common true phase assemblage Translated PARC group assemblage
1 Converter slaga C2S/C3S + Mg-wustite + C2(A,F) ± lime/portlandite ± Fe-metal; weathering products of C2S and C2(A,F) with apparent enrichment in Al, P; oxidation products of Mg-wustite incl. magnetite solid solution {Si, Ca} + {Mg, Fe} + {Ca, Fe)/{Al, Ca, Fe} ± {Ca} ± {Fe} mixing (specifically {Mg, Ca, Fe}); {Al, Si, Ca}, {Si, P, Ca}
2 Slopping-/rapid-quenched converter slagb Ca–Mg-olivine ± C2S/C3S ± Mg-wustite ± C2(A,F) {Mg, Si, Ca} ± {Si, Ca} ± {Mg, Fe} + {Ca, Fe}/{Al, Ca, Fe} + mixing
3 Iron-ore sinter (sintered material)—high confidencea SFCA(-I/-II)/CF2/CF/CWF/C2(A,F) + FeOx (hem/mag) ± C2S/Ca–Mg-olivine/C2AS-C3MS2 {Ca, Fe} + {Fe} ± {Si, Ca} ± {Mg, Ca, Si} + mixing
4 Iron-ore pellet (fired material)—high confidencea FeOx (hem/mag) + variable lower-Ca-silicates than in sinter (original and reacted gangue) ± Mg-ferrite ± minor C2(A,F)/CF/CF2 {Fe} + {Si, Fe} ± {Mg, Fe} ± {Ca, Fe} + {Si, Ca, Fe} + mixing
5 Iron-ore sinter/pellet, including unreacted orea Unreacted ore—FeOx (hem/mag) + diverse minor silicates; Undistinguishable relict ore particles—FeOx (hem/mag) + low abundances of (3) and (4) phases Dominantly {Fe} ± lower abundance groups from (3) and (4)
6 Fe/FeOx particles with > 5% Zn-compoundb High Fe/FeOx/FeO(OH) + Zn-oxide/Zn–Fe-oxide High {Fe} + {Zn (La)}/{Zn (Lα), Fe}
7 Fe/FeOx particles with significant metal—including metal sliversa High Fe/FeOx of which a significant portion Fe-metal High {Fe} with attendant {Fe, Fe (Kβ)} (probable Fe-metal pixels)
8 Rich in Zn-compounds—including Zn-rich scrapa High Zn-oxide/Zn–Fe-oxide/Zn-miscellaneous oxide High {Zn (Lα)}/{Zn (Lα), Fe}
9 De-sulphurisation process material—potentialb MgO + spinel (MgAl2O4) {Mg} + {Mg, Al}
10 Ca-aluminate-rich steelmaking slags (giethalslak)b Rich in Ca-aluminates CA3/CA2/CA/C12A7/C3A ± lesser C2S ± other Ca–Al-silicates ± MgO ± spinel {Al, Ca} ± {Si, Ca} ± {Al, Si, Ca} ± {Mg} ± {Mg, Al} + mixing
11 Dolomite (flux) or partly reacted residue thereofa Dolomite or thermal decomposition/weathering products thereof {Mg, Ca} ± {Mg} ± {Ca}
12 Mg-(hydr-)oxide ± sulphate: residue after dolomite flux and potential refractory materiala MgO/Mg-hydroxide ± intimately intergrown sulphate concentrated at rim/surface of particle {Mg} ± {S}/{Mg, S}
13 Mg-rich olivine: likely flux, iron-ore sinter/pellet processa Mg-rich (forsteritic) olivine, lacking associated MgO {Mg, Si} without abundant {Mg} in same particle
14 Olivine-MgO: potential tundish gunning massb Mg-rich (forsteritic) olivine, with associated MgO {Mg, Si} with abundant {Mg} in same particle
15 Alumina-bearing particles: source unclear Particles containing or dominated by alumina (corundum) {Al}
16 Ca–Al-silicate dominated: source unclear Particles dominated by Ca–Al-silicate Dominantly {Al, Si, Ca}
17 Ca-carbonate/hydroxide/oxide dominated: potential flux (iron-ore sinter/pellet, steelmaking processes)a; weathering products of (converter-)slagsa; naturally occurring Dominated by Ca-carbonate (calcite) /hydroxide (portlandite) /oxide (lime) {Ca}
18 Silica + Ca-silicate-hydrates + Ca-hydroxide/-carbonate: potential cement/building materialc Silica + Ca-silicate-hydrates + Ca-hydroxide/-carbonate {Si} + {Si, Ca} ± {Ca}
19 Gypsum/anhydrite rich: potential building material, other sources unclearc Gypsum/anhydrite rich {S, Ca}
20 Ti-oxide particles: source unclearc TiO2 (rutile) {Ti}
21 Ti-rich paintc Ti–Al-silicate {Al, Si, Ti}
22 Qz–clay–fsp–mica, natural as well as potential iron-ore gangue componentc Particles dominated by one or more of quartz (silica), clay minerals, feldspars, micas Dominantly ± {Si} ± {Al, Si} ± {Na, Al, Si} ± {K, Al, Si} ± {Mg, Al, Si}
23 Chloride particles or gt50% of surface covered: sea-salt and surface covering/alteration of other particlesc Dominantly salt (NaCl), artefact pixels from mixed signal of thin salt layer over variable substrate (particle surface) Dominantly {NaCl} ± {Cl} ± {*, Cl, *}
24 Coal and cokes (minimum estimate)b Carbon rich with ash phases High {empty spectra} + {Si} ± {Al, Si} ± {Na, Al, Si} ± {K, Al, Si} ± {Mg, Al, Si}
25 Undifferentiated carbon-rich material: may include graphite flakes, organic carbon-based materials and diverse sources Carbon rich with or without other non-C phases High {empty spectra}
26 Unassigned grains with lower carbon content - -
  1. aDirectly verified with/encountered in reference source materials shown in manuscript; bconsistent with established mineralogy of process-related or raw materials from Tata Steel IJmuiden integrated works (internal studies); cconsistent with established mineralogy of urban/agricultural/natural materials as candidate sources