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Table 1 Selected PARC groups, correspondence with phases detected by XRD and other common phases/mixtures/artefacts inferred from detailed SEM–EDS analysis

From: A method for analysis of nuisance dust from integrated steel works: chemical and mineralogical characteristics of contributing sources

PARC group XRD-PARC overlap XRD phase Other common phases/mixtures/artefacts
{Si, Ca} 1 C2S Beta-C2S (larnite) C3S (hatrurite, or breakdown products thereof); other Ca-silicate phases; mixed pixels—{Ca} calcite/lime/portlandite + {Si} silica
{Si, P, Ca} Alpha'-C2S Extreme P-rich variant: weathering product after C2S
{Fe, Fe(Kβ)}
FeOx/FeO(OH)/Fe Hematite Siderite; Artefact, {Fe, Fe(Kβ}} pixels used as tracer for iron metallic on grain/population/sample scale
Magnetite (incl. Mg-ferrite rich)
Iron metallic
{Ca} Calcite/lime/portlandite Calcite  
{Ca, Fe} Ca-ferrites 2 SFCA Note: SFCACWF occur near exclusively in sinter, brownmillerite C2(A,F) dominantly in converter slag; Mixed pixels—{Ca} calcite/lime/portlandite + {Fe} FeOx may occur in poorly reacted pellet/sinter material
{Al, Ca, Fe} Brownmillerite C2(A,F)
{Al, Ca} Ca-aluminates C3A Artefact pixels—highly Al-rich brownmillerite C2(A,F) where Fe peak intensity does not exceed threshold for assignment as {Al, Ca, Fe}
3 CMAS Q-phase
{Si, Ca, Fe} Kirschsteinite, clinopyroxene, amphibole Kirschsteinite Mixed pixels—{Si, Ca} C2S + {Fe} FeOx or {Ca, Fe} Ca-ferrites intergrowth in sinter
{Mg, Si, Ca, Fe} Clinopyroxene Mixed pixels
{Mg, Si, Fe} Amphibole Mixed pixels
{Mg, Si, Ca} Monticellite Monticellite Clinopyroxene
{Mg, Si} Forsterite Forsterite Orthopyroxene
{Al, Si, Ca} Gehlenite and Katoite Katoite Ca-feldspar (anorthite)
{S, Ca} Gypsum/anhydrite Anhydrite  
{± , S, ±} Diverse sulphates and sulphides; mixed pixels—sulphates on particle surfaces
{Si} Quartz Quartz Amorphous silica; SiC
{Al, Si} Kaolinite Kaolinite Mullite, other alumino-silicates
{Mg, Al, Si} Mica Mica  
{Al, Si, K} Feldspar Feldspar  
{Mg, Fe} Mg-wustite Mg-wustite Mg-ferrite rich spinel solid solution in pellets and sinter; finely intergrown oxidation products after Mg-wustite in converter slag, including spinel solid solution (magnetite)
{Mg, Mn, Fe}
{Mg, Ca} Dolomite Dolomite Decarbonation products after dolomite
{Mg, Ca, Fe} Mixed pixels—{Mg, Fe} Mg-wustite + {Ca, Fe} brownmillerite C2(A,F) in converter slag
{Si, Fe} Mixed pixels—{Si} silica or diverse high-Si silicates + {Fe} FeOx in pellets and sinter; much less commonly fayalite
{Mg} Periclase/brucite Periclase/brucite  
{Mg, Al} Spinel
{Mg, Al, Si, Ca} Blast furnace slag (glassy); other Ca–Mg–Al-silicate glasses; melilite (akermanite–gehlenite)
{P, Ca} Apatite Apatite  
{± , P, ±} Diverse phosphates/phosphides
{Mn}    MnO-rich monoxide
{Si, Mn}    Mn-silicate
{Al}    Alumina (corundum); aluminium metal
{Ti}    TiO2 (rutile)
{Al, Si, Ti}    Ti–Al-silicate
{Si, Ti}    Ti-silicate
{Zn (Lα), ±} ZnO (zincite); ZnFe-oxide (Zn-ferrite) + other Zn-dominated oxides with minor elements
{Na, Cl} Halite (NaCl) Halite (NaCl)  
{± , Cl, ±} Diverse chlorides; mixed pixels—chlorides on particle surfaces
{empty spectra} Graphite Graphite All forms of carbon, including sample mounting medium
  1. See Fig. 2 for full XRD phase names and nominal chemical formulae. 1Several phases named using cement chemist notation, where formulae are abbreviated with C=CaO, M=MgO, A=Al2O3, S=SiO2, W=FeO, F=Fe2O3. N.B. the following abbreviations are of phase names rather than chemical formulae: 2silico ferrite of calcium and aluminium (SFCA) and 3CMAS Q-phase=Ca–Mg–Al–Si-oxide Q-phase