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Table 1 This table summarizes the results of the analysis of existing and emerging micro-level regimes for buildings and ARCH discussed in the "Analysis of current and forthcoming environmental indicators for ARCH" section. The table shows the prevalence or absence of common circular environmental indicators in each of the regimes

From: The future of circular environmental impact indicators for cultural heritage buildings in Europe

Comparison of current circular environmental indicators [3] to current and developing environmental indicators relevant for ARCH
  Life Cycle Analysis-based standards
[32]
Environmental Impact Assessment
[36]
Green Building Certifications
(w/CE)
[37]
Level(s)
[38]
The current CE indicators prevalent in ARCH building projects in [3]
1. Indicators of direct reductions to new natural materials extraction due to the adaptive reuse
Maintain embodied energy in reused concrete, stone, brick, steel, etc. (CO2 equiv. GHGs per ton avoided or tons avoided/reused) Should include the entire life cycle (all phases including deconstruction); however, it depends on the LCA boundary. For example, the construction phase of an existing building may be excluded. Theoretically, this indicator is included as Global Warming Potential Although energy and emissions during construction operation and decommissioning are included, embodied energy in reused materials is not explicitly included Included, under minimize energy consumption, “During the design phase, elements, components and/or materials are selected by the least amount of embodied energy.” Indicator “1.2 Life cycle Global Warming Potential kg CO2 equivalents per square meter per year (kg CO2 eq./m2/yr.).” This applies to separate phases of the life cycle. Cumulatively, all life cycle would apply to ARCH
Increase water efficiency/freshwater consumption (kilolitres/person/year) Included as amount of fresh water consumed Water efficiency is included under raw materials efficiency “Minimize water consumption” is an explicit strategy “3.1 Total water consumption m3 of water per occupant per year” allows for establishing a baseline and tracking change
Reduce C&D waste to landfill through recovery and reuse on or off-site (tons or cubic meters) Includes type(s) of wastes The description of the project includes type and quantity waste produced during construction in line with EU Waste Framework Directive The indicator “landfill/unknown: % of volume that goes to landfill or of which the destination is unknown, including
Corresponding volume/weight” is included under “inventory of existing real estate.”
“2.3 Construction and demolition waste and materials
kg waste and materials per m2 of total useful floor area (per life cycle and project stage reported on)”
Increase land use efficiency due to the adaptive reuse (square meter reductions to space requirements of new purpose) Material flow reductions would capture this indicator if a comparison of alternate project designs were made. Otherwise, the material flows are calculated as part of the LCA Included generally, but not specifically under resource efficiency of land. Unlikely to cover the efficient use of building space generally Included in strategy, “M.1.1.2—A feasibility study is performed on the possibilities of minimizing the square meters…” Level(s) includes a simplified LCA with which compares the buildings’ useful space over its lifetime to the bill of materials. Also, it includes scenarios that are designed to assess the adaptive reuse potential
For office buildings, users’ space requirements are included
2. Indicators of direct reductions to energy use due to the adaptive reuse
Greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 equiv. GHGs tons/year) Global Warming Potential Greenhouse gases emitted or avoided using LCA Included in energy cycle Indicator “1.2 Life cycle Global Warming Potential kg CO2 equivalents per square meter per year (kg CO2 eq./m2/yr.)
Increase energy efficiency/consumption per (megawatt hours or kilojoule/user/year) Energy flows are calculated under Global Warming Potential Energy efficiency is included Included under minimize energy, “The building consumes during the use phase a minimal amount of energy.” Included as “1.1 Use stage energy performance. 1.1 Use stage energy performance-kilowatt hours per square meter per year (kWh/m2/yr.)”
Increase amount of non-renewable vs. renewable energy use. Potentially achieving a net zero carbon or energy producing building (megawatt hours or kilojoules) Amount of non-renewable energy consumed, and renewable energy consumed are reported Included under “Resource Use Indicators.” Included in sustainable and local energy, with the goal of supplied electricity and heat being 100% renewable Renewable energy is noted separately in the primary energy calculation above
3. Indicators of direct environmental improvements due to the adaptive reuse
Reductions to air emissions including CO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx), and particulate matter Direct emissions to air are included at all phases of the life cycle Included under “gaseous and particulate emissions generated by the project” These could be included in the sub-strategy, “Prevent pollution during construction, use phase and deconstruction.” (…) “However, the indicators are not yet elaborated.” Other than CO2, the air quality indicators seem to be focused on outdoor air pollution as a source of indoor air quality
Improve water quality measured as eutrophication potential based on nutrient loads (phosphorous or nitrogen g/litre or dissolved oxygen) Water quality measured as eutrophication and acidification potential are included Water quality, specifically eutrophication, is included Not included. The water strategies focus on minimizing freshwater use Included in the LCA, particularly eutrophication. Otherwise, water consumption/efficiency is measured
4. Indicators of indirect reductions to energy use or pollution due to the adaptive reuse
Maintain embodied energy in reused concrete, stone, brick, steel, etc. (CO2 equiv. GHGs per ton avoided) Included in the Global Warming Potential as noted above Although energy and emissions during construction operation and decommissioning are included, embodied energy in reused materials is not explicitly included This indicator is relevant to the material minimization, reuse, and recycling indicators,
“M.1.1—Reduce amount of materials”, M.2.1—Maximise amount of reused materials" and “M.3.1—Maximise amount of renewable materials”, “M.4.1.1—A building material passport…”
The indicator is embedded in the 2.3 Construction and Demolition waste estimates. Level(s) uses a scenario analysis to estimate the quantity of materials for reuse, recycling, and recovery
Limit land use change (farmland maintained or reduction to urban sprawl in hectares) Measures land use change avoided (conversion of land not previously built on) Included under project description, “Baseline: Aspects of the Environment”, and “Prediction of Direct Effects.” The land use change can be calculated from the two required aspects Not included in the CE Indicators. It is part of the current BREEAM “Direct land use change” is part of the global warming potential calculation. It is not a standalone indicator
Indirect emission reductions due to the adaptive reuse, e.g., reduction in vehicle use (CO2 equiv. GHGs per year avoided) Can be included under “Access to services” referring to access to public transport for occupants Included as “Transport infrastructure: increased or avoided carbon emissions associated with energy use for the operation of the Project.” Not included in the CE Indicators. The BREEAM communities’ tool is for master planning Not included