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Table 2 Concentration ranges and mean value of PCBs in the water dissolved phase (DP), the suspended particulate matter (SPM) and the sediments from recent studies of different rivers, estuaries and coasts in the world

From: Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in water and sediment from Volturno River, Southern Italy: occurrence, distribution and risk assessment

Area References N. of PCBs DP (ng L−1) SPM (ng L−1) Sediments (ng g−1) DP + SPM (ng L−1)
Range Mean Range Mean Range Mean Range Mean
PCBs
 Tokyo Bay, Japan Kobayashi et al. [37] 209 0.04–0.64 0.096 0.05–0.58 0.15 2.7–110 39.0   
 Bengal Bay, India Chakraborty et al. [76] 19        39–233 115.2
 Yangtze Estuary, China Gao et al. [19] 28      1.86–148.22 24.85   
 Chao River, China Yu et al. [38] 12      0.004–0.036    
 Haizhou Bay, China Zhang et al. [27] 22      1.33–6.27 4.0   
 Daliao River Estuary, China Men et al. [39] 41 5.51–40.28 16.91 6.78–66.55 21.81 0.83–7.29 1.77   
 Shuangtzaizi Estuary, China Yuan et al. [9] 28      1.83–36.68 10.53   
 Chaohu Lake, China He et al. [28] 34      0.07–3.99 0.67   
 Yellow River, China Gao et al. [11] 12      0.001–0.010 0.0025   
 Hangzhou Bay, China Adeleye et al. [33] 9      0.60–63.00    
 China Sea, China Kaiser et al. [40] 24      ND–0.12    
 Chenab River, Pakistan Mahmood et al. [36] 32 0.21–27.5 5.72    0.83–59.4 13.9   
 Ravi River, Pakistan Syed et al. [49] 31      4.6–424.3 49.0   
 Chenab River, Pakistan Eqani et al. [34] 7 1.1–8.5 2.8       
 Congo River Basin, Congo Verhaert et al. [41] 33      ND-1.4    
 Congo River Basin, Congo Mwanamoki et al. [42] 12      0.07–0.99    
 Umgeni River, South Africa Gakuba et al. [50] 8 6.91–21.69     102.60–427.80    
 Msunduzi River, South Africa Adeyinka [51] 8      361.7–5041.6 2163.4 6.49–141.68 36.7
 Sea Lots, Trinidad and Tobago Mohammed et al. [52] 136      62–601    
 Panama Canal and California Coast, USA Menzies et al. [53] 19 ND-18,450 1164.0    62–601    
 Bedford Harbor, USA Subedi et al. [54] 136      2800.0–109,000    
 Chiacago Ship Canal, USA Peverly et al. [55] 209      69.0–5000    
 Midway Atoll, Hawaii Ge et al. [55] 28      2.6–148.8 50.7   
 Portuguese coast, Portugal Ferreira et al. [35] 17    4.2–30.1      
 Portuguese Coastal area, Portugal Carvalho et al. [57] 7      0.3–466.8    
 Moscow River, Russia Eremina et al. [48] 9 ND–180.7        
 Someşu Mic River, Romania Barhoumi et al. [61] 20      2.74–252.72    
 Rhone River, France Mourier et al. [58] 7      11.5–417.1    
 Huveaune River, France Kanzari et al. [59] 7      2.8–435.0 148.0   
 Durance River and Berre Lagoon, France Kanzari et al. [60] 7      0.03–514.4    
 Izmir Bay, Turkey Pazi et al. [43] 20      0.21–31.95    
 Egyptian Coast, Egypt Barakat et al. [83] 96      2.29–377.0 32.2   
 Nador Lagoon, Marocco Giuliani et al. [44] 127      2.50–20.7 9.17   
 Tripoli Harbor, Lebanon Merhaby et al. [62] 28      17.81–301.95    
 Morava River, Czech Republic Kukucka et al. [45] 12      0.17–0.98    
 Plitvice Lakes, Croatia Dvorscak et al. [46] 17      0.07–1.78    
 River Po, Italy Viganò et al. [63] 14      48.6–335.0    
 Adriatic Sea, Italy Combi et al. [47] 28      ND-9.0    
 Mar Piccolo coast, Italy Bellucci et al. [64] 32      82.9–1045.0    
This study   32 2.28–10.0 6.07 0.71–42.8 8.82 4.37–64.4 26.5 4.07–48.04 14.9