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Table 2 Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) and biomagnification factors (BMFs) for WFD priority substances that refer to freshwater ecosystems in the temperate zones (Europe, North America, and North China)

From: Selection and application of trophic magnification factors for priority substances to normalize freshwater fish monitoring data under the European Water Framework Directive: a case study

Substance, congener, diastereomer TMF BMF Water body Type of aquatic food web Analyzed fish tissue Source
BDE 28 0.53   Lake Erie, Can, USA Pelagic fish Whole fish [42]
BDE 28 1.6   Lake Ontario, Can Pelagic fish Whole fish [42]
BDE 28 2.7 0.9–2.0 (TL-corrected, fish–fish) Lake Erie, Can, USA Pelagic fish Whole fish [43]
BDE 28 0.6 0.78–0.60 (TL-corrected; zooplankton-fish) Lago Maggiore, Italy Pelagic Fish fillet [15]; [44]
BDE 47 5.72   Lake Mjøsa, Norway Pelagic Fish fillet [45]
BDE 47 5.82   Lake Mjøsa, Norway Pelagic Fish fillet [9]
BDE 47 6.95   Lake Mjøsa, Norway Pelagic Fish fillet [46]
BDE 47 5.2 0.1–8.9 (fish–fish) Lake Winnipeg, Can Pelagic Fish fillet [47]
BDE 47 1.31   Lake Baiyangdian, China Benthopelagic Fish fillet [48]
BDE 47 1.9 0.4–3.3 (TL-corrected, fish-zooplankton) Lake Erie, Can, USA Benthopelagic Whole fish [43]
BDE 47 4.2 0.3–3.6 (TL-corrected, fish–fish) Lake Erie, Can, USA Pelagic fish Whole fish [43]
BDE 47 6.34 ± 1.19 4.1–7.6 (mean TL-corrected fish–fish) Lake Ontario, Can Pelagic Whole fish [20]
BDE 47 2.11   Lake Ontario, Can Pelagic fish Whole fish [42]
BDE 47 0.46   Lake Erie, Can, USA Pelagic fish Whole fish [42]
BDE 99 2.95   Lake Mjøsa, Norway Pelagic Fish fillet [45]
BDE 99 1.39   Lake Baiyangdian, China Benthopelagic Fish fillet [48]
BDE 99 2.43   Lake Mjøsa, Norway Pelagic Fish fillet [9]
BDE 99 6.36 ± 1.19 8.0–22.1 (mean TL-corrected, fish–fish) Lake Ontario, Can Pelagic Whole fish [20]
BDE 99 0.23   Lake Erie, Can, USA Pelagic fish Whole fish [42]
BDE 100 1.82   Lake Baiyangdian, China Benthopelagic Fish fillet [48]
BDE 100 0.44   Lake Erie, Can, USA Pelagic fish Whole fish [42]
BDE 100 3.7 0.4–4.9 (TL-corrected, fish–fish) Lake Erie, Can, USA Pelagic fish Whole fish [43]
BDE 100 6.18 ± 1.19 4.5–11.0 (mean TL-corrected fish–fish) Lake Ontario, Can Pelagic Whole fish [20]
BDE 153 0.50 0.45–0.55 (TL-corrected; zooplankton-fish) Lakes Maggiore and Lugano, Italy Pelagic Fish fillet [15]; [44]
BDE 153 2.08   Lake Baiyangdian, China Benthopelagic Fish fillet [48]
BDE 153 0.28   Lake Erie, Can, USA Pelagic fish Whole fish [42]
BDE 153 6.34 ± 1.23 3.4–13.2 (mean TL-corrected, fish–fish) Lake Ontario, Can Pelagic Whole fish [20]
BDE 154 1.65   Lake Baiyangdian, China Benthopelagic Fish fillet [48]
BDE 154 9.46 ± 2.17 2.9–7.6 (mean TL-corrected fish–fish) Lake Ontario, Can Pelagic Whole fish [20]
BDE 154 0.47   Lake Erie, Can, USA Pelagic fish Whole fish [42]
Sum PBDE$ 1.51 (sum 9 congeners)   Lake Baiyangdian, China Benthopelagic Fish fillet [48]
Sum PBDE$ 3.6 (sum 40 congeners) 0.4–4.0 (TL-corrected, fish–fish) Lake Erie, Can, USA Pelagic fish Whole fish [43]
Sum PBDE$ 1.9 (sum 21 congeners)   Lake Ontario, Can Pelagic fish Whole fish [42]
Sum PBDE$ 0.39 (sum 21 congeners)   Lake Erie, Can, USA Pelagic fish Whole fish [42]
HCB 2.4   Lake Como, Italy Pelagic Fish fillet [49]
HCB 2.9 ± 1.7   17 lakes in Can and North USA Benthopelagic Fish fillet [50]
HCB 2.1 ± 1.8   5 lakes in Can and North USAa Pelagic Fish fillet [50]
PCB 77 2.09 1.7–7.1 (fish–fish) Lake Ontario, Can Benthopelagic Whole fish [51]
PCB 77 2.54   Lake Hartwell*, SC, USA Benthopelagic Whole fish [52]
PCB 81 2.67 1.7–6.9 (fish–fish) Lake Ontario, Can Benthopelagic Whole fish [51]
PCB 126 2.96 2.8–8.9 (fish–fish) Lake Ontario, Can Benthopelagic Whole fish [51]
PCB 169 3.20 1.9–10.2 (fish–fish) Lake Ontario, Can Benthopelagic Whole fish [51]
PCB 105 4.01   Lake Hartwell*, SC, USA Benthopelagic Whole fish [52]
PCB 105 3.52 1.6–11.1 (fish–fish) Lake Ontario, Can Benthopelagic Whole fish [51]
PCB 105 1.46   Lake Kernaalanjärvi, Finland Benthopelagic Fish fillet [35]
PCB 114 4.66 2.4–28 (fish–fish) Lake Ontario, Can Benthopelagic Whole fish [51]
PCB 114 1.27   Lake Kernaalanjärvi, Finland Benthopelagic Fish fillet [35]
PCB 118 1.57   Lake Kernaalanjärvi, Finland Benthopelagic Fish fillet [35]
PCB 118 4.10   Lake Hartwell*, SC, USA Benthopelagic Whole fish [52]
PCB 118 2.9   Lake Como, Italy Pelagic Fish fillet [49]
PCB 118 3.40 1.3–8.8 Lake Ontario, Can Benthopelagic Whole fish [51]
PCB 118 0.73 0.17–0.57 (TL-corrected; zooplankton-fish) Lago Maggiore, Italy Pelagic Fish fillet [15]
PCB 156 6.24   Lake Hartwell*, SC, USA Benthopelagic Whole fish [52]
PCB 156 1.63   Lake Kernaalanjärvi, Finland Benthopelagic Fish fillet [35]
PCB 156 2.2   Lake Como, Italy Pelagic Fish fillet [49]
PCB 156 4.06 2.1–15.6 (fish–fish) Lake Ontario, Can Benthopelagic Whole fish [51]
PCB 180 4.58   Lake Mjøsa, Norway Pelagic Fish fillet [45]
PCB 180 6.01   Lake Mjøsa, Norway Pelagic Fish fillet [9]
PCB 180 1.2   Lake Erie, Can Benthopelagic Whole fish [53]
PCB 180 1.79   Lake Kernaalanjärvi, Finland Benthopelagic Fish fillet [35]
PCB 180 4.3 ± 1.9   17 lakes in Can and North USA Benthopelagic Fish fillet [50]
PCB 180 3.8 ± 1.9   5 lakes in Can and North USAa Pelagic Fish fillet [50]
PCB 180 4.3   Lake Como, Italy Pelagic Fish fillet [49]
Sum PCBs$ 2.40   Lake Superior Pelagic Whole fish [54]
Sum PCBs$ 1.6 (FWMF; sum of 20 congeners)   Twelvemile Creek, SC, USA Benthopelagic Whole fish [55]
Sum PCBs$ 3.09 (sum of 127 congeners)   Lake Hartwell*, SC, USA Benthopelagic Whole fish [52]
Sum PCBs$ 1.6 (FWMF; sum 7 chiral congeners) 2.5–5.5 (fish–fish) Lake Superior Pelagic Whole fish [37]
Sum PCBs$ 1.44 (sum 8 congeners?)   Lake Ontario, Can Benthopelagic Whole fish [51]
Sum PCBs$ 2.8 (sum 31 congeners)   Lake Como, Italy Pelagic Fish fillet [49]
α-HBCDD 2.58   Ponds, Dahuangpu Wetland Natural Conservation, Tianjin, China Benthopelagic incl. herring gull Fish fillet [56]
γ-HBCDD 4.8 0.1–6.3 Lake Winnipeg, Can Pelagic Fish fillet [36]
Sum HBCDDs 3.1 1.9 (arithmetic mean BMF fish–fish) Lake Winnipeg, Can Pelagic Fish fillet [36]
Sum HBCDDs 2.44   Ponds, Dahuangpu Wetland Natural Conservation, Tianjin, China Benthopelagic incl. herring gull Fish fillet [56]
Sum HBCDDs 2.23   Lake Ontario, Can Pelagic fish Whole fish [42]
Sum HBCDDs 6.3 (ww)   Lake Ontario, Can Pelagic Whole fish [38]
PFOS 5.9 (ww)   Lake Ontario, Can Pelagic Whole fish [39]; Δ15N = 3.8‰
PFOS 6.9 (ww)   Lake Mjøsa, Norway Pelagic Fish fillet [46]
PFOS 3.0 (ww, sum linear + branched)   Lake Mergozzo, Italy Pelagic Fish fillet [57]
PFOS 4.2± 0.87 (ww, sum PFOS) Sum PFOS: 0.13–0.9 (ww, TL-corrected, fish–fish) Lake Ontario, Can Pelagic Whole fish [40];
Δ15N = 3.8‰
PFOS 3.8 ± 0.98 (ww, sum PFOS) 0.5 – 16 (ww, TL-corrected, invertebrate–fish) Lake Ontario, Can Benthopelagic Whole fish [40];
Δ15N = 3.8‰
PFOS 1.5 (ww, sum linear + branched) 2.0–169 (ww, TL-corrected, macrophytes, invertebrates–fish) River Orge*, France Benthopelagic Whole fish [33]
PFOS 2.4–4.1 (ww, sum linear + branched; geometric mean: 2.9   Rivers Rhône, Bourdre, Furan, Luynes, France Benthopelagic Whole fish (partly calculated with CF) [58]
Hg 4.9–13 (ww, mean 6 years: 7.06 ww)   Lake Mjøsa, Norway Pelagic Fish fillet [46]
Hg 2.3 (dw); 2.4 (ww)   Lake Mergozzo, Italy Pelagic Fish fillet [57]
Hg 1.3–2.5 (dw; mean: 1.9);
2.79 (ww)
  21 rivers, New Brunswick, Can Benthopelagic incl. biofilm Fish fillet [41];
Δ15N = 2.0‰;
italics: recalculated with ww data given by [14]
Hg 1.6–4.8 (dw);
4.73 (ww)
  21 rivers, New Brunswick, Can Benthopelagic incl. biofilm Fish fillet [41];
Δ15N = 3.4‰;
italics: recalculated with ww data given by [14]
Hg 5.4   River Laagen, Norway Benthopelagic Fish fillet [13]
Hg 3.98 3.21–6.68
(TL-corrected; zooplankton-fish)
Lago Maggiore, Italy Pelagic Fish fillet [15]
MeHg 2.8–6.0 (dw; mean: 3.5) 1.8–9.4 (dw, TL-corrected, mean 4.5 ± 2.3 for predatory invertebrates – fish) 21 rivers, New Brunswick, Can Benthopelagic incl. biofilm Fish fillet [41];
Δ15N = 2.0‰
MeHg 5.6–21.2 (dw)   21 rivers, New Brunswick, Can Benthopelagic incl. biofilm Fish fillet [41];
Δ15N = 3.4‰
Heptachlor 0.33   Lake Superior Benthopelagic Lake Superior: fish fillet (lake trout) and whole fish [19] with data from [32]
Heptachlor epoxide 4.93   Lake Superior, arctic marine food web Benthopelagic or pelagic + marine mammals Lake Superior: fish fillet (lake trout) and whole fish;
Arctica: whole fish, blubber + muscle of mammals
[19] with data from [32] (Lake Superior) and [34] (Arctica)
HCBD (No TMF available; no evidence on biomagnification; TMF set as 1.0)     Whole fish [59]
WFD fact sheet HCBD [60] referring to [61]
Dicofol 0.75 (Estimated with an aquatic food web model)      [22] and references cited therein
  1. Data basis for TMFs and BMFs: lipid-normalized concentrations unless otherwise indicated (e.g., PFOS, Hg); significant correlation between TL and log-transformed concentrations (p ≤ 0.1)
  2. CF: conversion factor F-WF; Can: Canada; SC: South Carolina; FWMF: food web magnification factor (previously used term synonym for TMF); MeHg: methyl mercury. Trophic enrichment increment Δ15N used in TL calculation: 3.4‰ unless otherwise indicated; ww: wet weight; dw: dry weight
  3. $Sum of congeners that partly include - but are not restricted to—the WFD relevant congeners
  4. *Includes benthic organisms
  5. aSubgroup of the 17 lakes shown in the line above