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Table 6 Examples of application of empirical and semi-empirical models towards SDGs using EO data

From: Monitoring sustainable development by means of earth observation data and machine learning: a review

SDGs Field Main finding References
SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) Soil condition Proposed a Semi-Empirical model, which demonstrated its suitability, to reconstruct the signal from Signal-to-Noise Ratio data and simultaneous acquire information that is influenced by soil moisture [139]
SDG 7 (Affordable and Clean Energy) Renewable energy sources Developed a semi-empirical model to forecast the monthly average of solar radiation per hour. The results demonstrated that the estimated value was in agreement with the measurements [140]
SDG 15 (Life on Land) Forest Proposed the use of a Semi-Empirical model with images from RADARSAT-2 to acquire features from the surface of tropical forests. The framework achieved an accuracy of  83% [141]
Invasive plants Compared supervised and unsupervised image classifiers for mapping a cactus plant, and the results showed that the supervised classifiers were more accurate than the unsupervised classifiers [142]