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Table 4 Examples of genome editing in farm animals for increased efficiency of production

From: Broadening the GMO risk assessment in the EU for genome editing technologies in agriculture

Animal Target Trait Technological specification References Off-target analysis
Cow Intraspecies POLLED allele substitution No horns TALENs (SDN-3) [137] WGS, no OTEs detected.
But: additional integration of template plasmid discovered using whole genome sequencing data [76, 77]
Pig Deletion of SRCR5 region of CD163 Resistance to PRRSV CRISPR/Cas9 (SDN-1) [229, 230] a Altered cytokine levels (CCL3L1 and MIG)
CRISPR/Cas9 (SDN-1) [231] No analysis of OTEs
Pig Knockins of antiviral small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) at Rosa26 locus Resistance to African swine fever CRISPR/Cas9 (SDN-2) [232] Biased, screened 10 predicted off-target sites: no OTEs detected
Pig Gene knockout of ANPEP (Amino peptidase N) Resistance to TGEV CRISPR/Cas9 (SDN-1) [233] No analysis of OTEs
Knockin of CRISPR/Cas9 targeting viral p30 gene CRISPR/Cas9 (SDN-3) [234] No analysis of OTEs
Cow Gene knockin of human lysozyme (hLYZ) gene to bovine β-casein locus Increased antibacterial properties in their milk (reduced susceptibility to mastitis) ZNF (SDN-3) [235] Biased, screened 10 predicted off-target sites: no OTEs detected
But: random integration of transgenic fragments at an off-target site
Cow Gene knockin of mouse SP110 gene Increased resistance to tuberculosis TALENs (SDN-3) [236] No analysis of OTEs
Gene knockin of bovine NRAMP-1 gene CRISPR/Cas9 nickase
(SDN-3)
[237] Biased, screened 15 predicted off-target sites: no OTEs detected
Chicken Gene knockout of ovomucoid (OVM) Reduced allergenicity CRISPR/Cas9 (SDN-1) [238] Biased, screened 3 predicted off-target sites: no OTEs detected. Analysis of plasmid integration: negative
Gene knockout of ovalbumin (OV) Reduced allergenicity TALENs (SDN-1) [239] Biased, screened predicted off-target sites: no OTEs detected. Analysis of plasmid integration: negative
  1. Target genes, traits and genome editing technique used to create genome-edited farm animals with increased efficiency of production are shown. The respective references were also screened for the analysis of off-target effects
  2. CRISPR/Cas9, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9; SDN-1, site-directed nuclease-1; TALENs, transcription activator-like effector nucleases; OTEs, off-target effects; ZNF, zinc finger nucleases
  3. aThese two studies relate to the development of the same genome-edited organism and are treated as one study