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Table 1 Genome-edited crops with novel traits

From: Broadening the GMO risk assessment in the EU for genome editing technologies in agriculture

Species Ploidy level Genome size Genomic alteration Target gene(s) Trait(s) Technological specification References
Camelina Allohexaploid 750 Mbp Gene dosage, different allelic combinations Fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) Altered fatty acid composition CRISPR/Cas9, SDN-1 [157]
Sugarcane Allopolyploid App. 10 Gb Alteration of 107 out of 109 COMT gene copies/alleles Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) Altered lignin biosynthesis TALENs,
Wheat Allohexaploid 14.5 Gb Alteration of 35 out of 45 α-gliadin genes/alleles α-gliadin Reduced gluten content CRISPR/Cas9, SDN-1 [168]
Rice Diploid 430 Mbp Multiplexing, alteration of 8 different genes BADH2, Gn1a, QTL, GS3, GW2, Hd1, EP3, LPA1 Increased yield, plant architecture, fragrance, photoperiod CRISPR/Cas9
Tomato Diploid 900 Mbp Overcoming linkage drag Truncation of jointless-2 gene Easier harvesting CRISPR/Cas9, deletion [221]
  1. Examples of plants containing novel traits developed by complex interventions in the respective genome, e.g. multiplexing approaches or removal of genomic linkage using genome editing techniques are shown together with ploidy level of the genome-edited plants, the size of their genome, the intended genomic alteration, the target gene(s), the associated trait and genome editing technique
  2. CRISPR/Cas9, Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9; Mbp, Mega basepairs; SDN-1, Site-directed nuclease-1; Gb, Giga basepairs; TALENs, Transcription activator-like effector nucleases