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Table 5 Analysis of the associations between MN frequency and exposure levels exceeded the thresholds established in both the EU Ambient Air Quality Directive and the WHO Air Quality Guidelines

From: Results from the European Union MAPEC_LIFE cohort study on air pollution and chromosomal damage in children: are public health policies sufficiently protective?

Air pollutant Type of limit Limit value <EU/WHO limit >EU/WHO limit IRR (95% CIs)
N MN/1000 mean ± SD N MN/1000 mean ± SD
PM10 EU daily 50 µg/m3 1946 0.33 ± 0.49 193 0.40 ± 0.46 1.011 (0.811, 1.262)
WHO daily 50 µg/m3 1946 0.33 ± 0.49 193 0.40 ± 0.46 1.011(0.811, 1.262)
EU annual 40 µg/m3 1700 0.30 ± 0.45 439 0.46 ± 0.58 1.179*
(1.006, 1.381)
WHO annual 20 µg/m3 590 0.26 ± 0.42 1529 0.36 ± 0.50 1.225* (1.039, 1.443)
PM2.5 EU annual 25 µg/m3 1579 0.31 ± 0.45 419 0.46 ± 0.59 1.099 (0.915, 1.320)
WHO annual 10 µg/m3 307 0.23 ± 0.34 1691 0.36 ± 0.51 1.125 (0.916, 1.382)
WHO daily 25 µg/m3 1579 0.31 ± 0.45 419 0.46 ± 0.59 1.099 (0.915, 1.320)
Benzene EU annual 5 µg/m3 1772 0.33 ± 0.47 33 0.26 ± 0.36 0.818 (0.472, 1.418)
WHO annuala 1.7 µg/m3 1438 0.30 ± 0.45 367 0.41 ± 0.54 1.278* (1.038, 1.573)
NO2 EU annual 40 µg/m3 1435 0.33 ± 0.49 704 0.34 ± 0.48 0.782 (0.665, 0.921)
WHO annual 40 µg/m3 1435 0.33 ± 0.49 704 0.34 ± 0.48 0.782 (0.665, 0.921)
BaPb EU annual 1 ng/m3 1868 0.31 ± 0.46 166 0.51 ± 0.59 1.145 (0.900, 1.457)
WHO annuala 0.12 ng/m3 1146 0.24 ± 0.36 888 0.44 ± 0.57 1.598** (1.210, 2.111)
  1. All the associations were assessed including town of residence, temperature, child BMI and adherence to Mediterranean diet, exposure to second-hand smoke at home, having graduated mother and father in the model as potential confounders
  2. Number of biological samples (N) and mean MN frequency ± SD (MN/1000) are reported for children exposed to levels lower (<) or higher (>) than the limits. Associations were assessed by computing Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) with a Poisson regression model
  3. *, **p value < 0.05, < 0.01, respectively, assessed by Poison regression mixed model
  4. aBaP concentration detected on PM0.5 samples collected near schools
  5. bEstimated Reference Levels (RL)