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Table 3 List of wetland birds that partially feed in terrestrial habitats and are potentially exposed to lead shot (provided by D. Pain/Bird LIFE International 2017)

From: An evaluation of the proposal to regulate lead in hunting ammunition through the European Union’s REACH regulation

FamilyCommon nameScientific nameIUCN Red List Category (Europe)Likely to ingest gritFeeds to a significant extent in wetlandsFeeds in terrestrial areas in EuropeRelative exposure level to lead shot associated with feeding in terrestrial areas
Ardeidae (herons)Cattle egretBubulcus ibisLCPotentiallyNoYes-frequentlyLow
Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans)Brent gooseBranta berniclaLCYesNoYes-frequentlyHigh
Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans)Barnacle gooseBranta leucopsisLCYesNoYes-frequentlyHigh
Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans)Red-breasted gooseBranta ruficollisNTYesNoYes-frequentlyHigh
Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans)Greylag gooseAnser anserLCYesNoYes-frequentlyHigh
Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans)Bean gooseAnser fabalisLCYesNoYes-frequentlyHigh
Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans)Pink-footed gooseAnser brachyrhynchusLCYesNoYes-frequentlyHigh
Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans)Greater white-fronted gooseAnser albifronsLCYesNoYes-frequentlyHigh
Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans)Greenland white-fronted gooseAnser albifrons flavirostrisLCYesNoYes-frequentlyHigh
Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans)Lesser white-fronted gooseAnser erythropusENYesNoYes-frequentlyHigh
Rallidae (rails, gallinules, coots)CorncrakeCrex crexLCYesNoYes-frequentlyHigh
Gruidae (cranes)Demoiselle craneAnthropoides virgoLCYesNoYes-frequentlyHigh
Gruidae (cranes)Common craneGrus grusLCYesNoYes-frequentlyHigh
Ciconiidae (storks)White storkCiconia ciconiaLCYesNoYes-frequentlyLow
Charadriidae (plovers)Eurasian golden ploverPluvialis apricariaLCYesNoYes-frequentlyMedium
Charadriidae (plovers)Eurasian dotterelEudromias morinellusLCYesNoYes-frequentlyHigh
Charadriidae (plovers)Little ringed ploverCharadrius dubiusLCYesNoYes-frequentlyLow
Scolopacidae (sandpipers, snipes, phalaropes)Eurasian woodcockScolopax rusticola0YesNoYes-frequentlyHigh
Laridae (gulls, terns, skimmers)Lesser black-backed gullLarus fuscusLCYesNoYes-frequentlyMedium
Laridae (gulls, terns, skimmers)European herring gullLarus argentatusNTYesNoYes-frequentlyMedium
Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans)Ruddy shelduckTadorna ferrugineaLCYesNoYes-infrequentlyLow
Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans)Eurasian wigeonMareca penelopeLCYesYesYes-infrequentlyLow
Laridae (gulls, terns, skimmers)Glaucous gullLarus hyperboreusLCYesYesYes-infrequentlyLow
Laridae (gulls, terns, skimmers)Great black-backed gullLarus marinusLCYesYesYes-infrequentlyLow
Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans)Mute swanCygnus olorLCYesYesYes-sometimesHigh
Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans)Whooper swanCygnus cygnusLCYesYesYes-frequentlyHigh
Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans)Tundra swanCygnus columbianusENYesYesYes-frequentlyHigh
Charadriidae (plovers)Northern lapwingVanellus vanellusVUYesYesYes-frequentlyLow
Charadriidae (plovers)Spur-winged lapwingVanellus spinosusLCYesYesYes-sometimesLow
Scolopacidae (sandpipers, snipes, phalaropes)WhimbrelNumenius phaeopusLCYesYesYes-sometimesLow
Scolopacidae (sandpipers, snipes, phalaropes)Eurasian curlewNumenius arquataVUYesYesYes-sometimesLow
Scolopacidae (sandpipers, snipes, phalaropes)RuffCalidris pugnaxLCYesYesYes-sometimesMedium
Laridae (gulls, terns, skimmers)Yellow-legged gullLarus michahellisLCYesYesYes-sometimesMedium
Laridae (gulls, terns, skimmers)Iceland gullLarus glaucoidesLCYesYesYes-sometimesLow
  1. EN endangered, LC least concern, NT near threatened, VU vulnerable