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Table 2 Percent difference in FC measurements (OBFCM vs. CB) for NEDC, WLTP, and PEMS tests

From: Understanding the origins and variability of the fuel consumption gap: lessons learned from laboratory tests and a real-driving campaign

 OBFCM vs. CB% DifferenceSt.dev
Test cycleNEDC3.91.8
WLTP0.00.7
PEMS− 1.90.8