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Table 1 Fuel consumption declared and measured from the laboratory (WLTP and NEDC) and on-road tests (PEMS)

From: Understanding the origins and variability of the fuel consumption gap: lessons learned from laboratory tests and a real-driving campaign

TestFuel consumption (l/100 km) (FC gapa (%))
CombinedPhase 1bPhase 2cPhase 3dPhase 4e
Declared (NEDC)5.56.54.9  
NEDC-cold5.9 (8%)7.5 (37%)5.0 (− 8%)  
WLTP-cold6.1 (10%)8.0 (45%)5.7 (4%)4.7 (− 15%)6.7 (22%)
PEMS7.2 (31%)8.1 (47%)5.3 (− 3%)7.8 (42%) 
  1. aDifference (%) in FC compared to the official FC on the combined NEDC; bPhase 1 FC: in NEDC is urban driving cycle (UDC) FC; in WLTP is low-speed phase FC; in RDE is urban phase FC; cPhase 2 FC: in NEDC is extra-urban driving cycle (EUDC) FC; in WLTP is medium-speed phase FC; in RDE is rural phase FC; dPhase 3 FC: in WLTP is high-speed phase FC; in RDE is motorway phase FC; ePhase 4 FC: in WLTP is extra-high-speed phase FC