Skip to main content


Fig. 3 | Environmental Sciences Europe

Fig. 3

From: Fish biomarkers from a different perspective: evidence of adaptive strategy of Abramis brama (L.) to chemical stress

Fig. 3

Gene expression in liver or brain (only neurotoxicity) of the two populations of A. brama. Gene expression was determined by RQ-PCR analysis. Columns represent mean values ± SD, with N = 14 (reference population) and N = 11 (exposed population). Asterisks annotate statistically significant difference between populations, as determined by parametric t-test (for nrf2a, cyp1a, pc, mbp) or Mann–Whitney U test (for hsp70, cr, erk2a, cox1, sod, gpx1, mgst3a, erα, erβ, pygl, tfd), depending on the normality of distribution of data. Levels of significance were *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001. Median values, interquartile ranges, minimum and maximum are given in Additional file 1: Table S5

Back to article page