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Table 3 Electric vehicle types covered in our analysis

From: Energy efficiency trade-offs in small to large electric vehicles

Vehicle type: nameDescriptionDefinition (examples)
Type 0: Skate-boardVehicles without a handlebar“A flat, narrow board with two small wheels under each end, which a person stands on and moves forward by pushing one foot on the ground” (
Type 0: Hover-board, E-board“A motorized personal vehicle consisting of a platform for the feet mounted on two wheels and controlled by the way the rider distributes the weight” (
Type 1: Stand-up scooterVehicles with a handlebarAs, e.g., a Segway
Type 1: Kick scooter (e-scooter)“A kick scooter, push scooter or scooter, is a land vehicle with a handlebar, deck and wheels that is propelled by a rider pushing off the ground” (after
Type 2: E-bikeBicycle similar vehicles that can be operated alternatively without the electric engine.An electrified bicycle
Type 2: Bike-like three- and four-wheelerAs, e.g., cargo- or freight bicycles including small bicycle-like three- and four-wheelers, electric rickshaws
Type 3: Larger two- and three-wheelerStep-through scooters, mopeds, motorcycles, and larger three-wheelers (e.g., electrified Tuk Tuks) L1e − L5e vehiclesa
Type 4: light four-wheelerAs, e.g., a Renault Twizzy
L6e + L7e vehiclesa
Type 5: Passenger carAs, e.g., a Tesla
M1 vehiclesa (plug-in hybrid electric vehicles not covered)
Type 6: Light commercial vehicle, heavy-duty truckAs, e.g., a Streetscooter (
N1-3 vehiclesa
  1. aVehicle classes according to EU regulation [27, 26])