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Table 2 Summary statistics—regression analysis of certified and real-word energy consumption as function of vehicle attributes; significance at 1% level (***), 5% level (**), and 10% level (*); light commercial and heavy-duty vehicles are excluded from the regression analysis of real-world fuel consumption in Models 3 and 6 as sample size is insufficient; vehicle type 0: hover- and skateboards, type 1: stand-up and kick scooters, type 2: e-bikes, type 3: larger two- and three-wheelers, type 4: light four-wheelers, type 5: passenger cars, type 6: light commercial and heavy-duty vehicles

From: Energy efficiency trade-offs in small to large electric vehicles

Energy consumptionCoefficientValueStandard errort valuePr (> abs t)p valueAdjusted R2
 Model 1: energy consumption = α1+ β1mass
Certified(Intercept)***4.441.413.151.78e−03< 0.0010.74
Mass***6.69e−031.26e−035.321.78e−07
Real-world(Intercept)***2.260.395.871.42e−08< 0.0010.81
Mass***9.32e−032.71e−0434.438.01e−95
 Model 2: energy consumption = α2+ β2power
Certified(Intercept)***8.220.7311.211.35e−25< 0.0010.15
Power***5.98e−021.10e−025.468.31e−08
Real-world(Intercept)***9.910.6315.823.53e−39< 0.0010.40
Power***4.07e−023.52e−0311.595.53e−25
 Model 3: energy consumption = α3+ β3mass + β4power + β5year + β6type
Certified(Intercept)*141751.895.95e−02< 0.0010.93
Mass***4.43e−036.86e−046.454.43e−10
Power2.19e−032.53e−030.870.39
Year− 6.98e−023.72e−02− 1.880.61
Type 10.440.480.390.35
Type 2− 0.320.43− 0.750.45
Type 3***4.280.696.162.41e−09
Type 4***4.880.667.371.73e−12
Type 5***7.830.948.372.34e−12
Type 6***14.921.828.207.38e−15
Real-world(Intercept)***236882.697.66e−03< 0.0010.84
Mass***5.85e−039.07e−046.457.36e−10
Power3.86e−032.80e−031.380.17
Year***− 0.124.38e−02−2.688.01e−03
Type 1**1.930.762.521.23e−02
Type 20.530.650.810.42
Type 3***8.501.854.597.63e−06
Type 4***5.861.125.243.89e−07
Type 5***8.101.216.711.63e−07
 Model 4: log(energy consumption) = α4+ β7log(mass)
log(Certified)(Intercept)***− 4.750.17− 28.052.84e−95< 0.0010.89
log(Mass)***1.022.34e−0243.681.18e−151
log(Real-world)(Intercept)***− 4.460.18− 24.281.37e−66< 0.0010.92
log(Mass)***0.992.49e−0239.916.18e−108
 Model 5: log(energy consumption) = α5+ β8log(power)
log(Certified)(Intercept)***0.434.55e−029.423.38e−19< 0.0010.84
log(Power)***0.521.22e−0242.742.24e−152
log(Real-world)(Intercept)***0.644.95e−0212.883.01e−29< 0.0010.90
log(Power)***0.481.06e−0244.922.19e−119
 Model 6: log(energy consumption) = α6+ β9log(mass) + β10log(power) + β11year +β12type
log(Certified)(Intercept)*13.415.982.242.56e−02< 0.0010.97
log(Mass)***0.587.04e−028.235.93e−15
log(Power)4.78e−023.07e−021.560.12
Year***− 7.90e−032.94e−03− 2.697.64e−03
Type 1− 5.21e−020.12− 0.420.67
Type 2***− 1.159.86e−02− 11.702.89e−26
Type 3***0.808.08e−029.864.85e−20
Type 4***0.700.116.671.22e−10
Type 5***0.740.126.329.64e−10
Type 6***1.130.157.351.98e−12
log(Real-world)(Intercept)***18.085.883.082.36e−03< 0.0010.97
log(Mass)***0.428.62e−024.921.74e−06
log(Power)***6.06e−022.18e−022.785.96e−03
Year***9.72e−032.92e−03−3.331.02e−03
Type 10.290.241.230.22
Type 2***− 0.708.41e−02− 8.358.15e−15
Type 3***1.210.245.041.00e−06
Type 4***0.850.194.578.28e−06
Type 5***0.970.185.481.17e−07