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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of vehicle attributes; mass includes the vehicle and a generic driver of 70 kg; SD standard deviation; indirect CO2 emissions from electricity consumption during vehicle use is calculated based on a carbon intensity of 300 ± 230 g CO2/kWh (mean of the European Union ± standard deviation of country data; [36])

From: Energy efficiency trade-offs in small to large electric vehicles

Vehicle type and variable (sample size)MeanSDMinMax
Hover- and skateboards (16)
 Mass (kg) (14)861576124
 Power (kW) (15)0.970.830.403.00
 Battery capacity (kWh) (16)0.230.150.100.60
 Certified energy consumption (kWh/100 km) (16)1.020.310.631.58
 Real-world energy consumption (kWh/100 km) (7)1.370.510.892.14
 Indirect CO2 emissions—certified energy consumption (g CO2/km) (16)3.02.5 
 Indirect CO2 emissions—real-world energy consumption (g CO2/km) (7)4.13.5
Stand-up and kick scooters (26)
 Mass (kg) (25)901177115
 Power (kW) (26)0.460.210.251.00
 Battery capacity (kWh) (26)0.420.240.201.20
 Certified energy consumption (kWh/100 km) (26)1.250.420.752.33
 Real-world energy consumption (kWh/100 km) (11)1.460.440.842.25
 Indirect CO2 emissions—certified energy consumption (g CO2/km) (26)3.73.1 
 Indirect CO2 emissions—real-world energy consumption (g CO2/km) (11)4.33.6
E-bikes and bike-like three-wheelers (55)
 Mass (kg) (45)981082140
 Power (kW) (53)0.290.140.251.00
 Battery capacity (kWh) (55)0.470.110.300.80
 Certified energy consumption (kWh/100 km) (51)0.540.360.172.25
 Real-world energy consumption (kWh/100 km) (30)0.710.200.411.45
 Indirect CO2 emissions—certified energy consumption (g CO2/km) (51)1.61.6 
 Indirect CO2 emissions—real-world energy consumption (g CO2/km) (30)2.11.7
Larger two- and three-wheelers, including mopeds, step-through scooters, motorcycles (48)
 Mass (kg) (47)250115115550
 Power (kW) (47)15.022.20.25107
 Battery capacity (kWh) (48)5.85.10.5018
 Certified energy consumption (kWh/100 km) (48)4.623.201.0717.5
 Real-world energy consumption (kWh/100 km) (4)9.33.36.013.5
 Indirect CO2 emissions—certified energy consumption (g CO2/km) (48)1414 
 Indirect CO2 emissions—real-world energy consumption (g CO2/km) (4)2823
Car-like three- and four-wheelers (31)
 Mass (kg) (29)6752182751000
 Power (kW) (31)128.53.533
 Battery capacity (kWh) (30)9.67.61.735
 Certified energy consumption (kWh/100 km) (31)8.03.04.0016.25
 Real-world energy consumption (kWh/100 km) (12)10.03.34.816.4
 Indirect CO2 emissions—certified energy consumption (g CO2/km) (31)2420 
 Indirect CO2 emissions—real-world energy consumption (g CO2/km) (12)3025
Passenger cars (218)
 Mass (kg) (211)16894727663370
 Power (kW) (218)1501275575
 Battery capacity (kWh) (216)462610100
 Certified energy consumption (kWh/100 km) (206)16.03.74.929.3
 Real-world energy consumption (kWh/100 km) (179)18.44.59.633.3
 Indirect CO2 emissions—certified energy consumption (g CO2/km) (206)4738 
 Indirect CO2 emissions—real-world energy consumption (g CO2/km) (179)5444
Light commercial and heavy-duty vehicles (34)
 Mass (kg) (33)4812667967027070
 Power (kW) (34)889014370
 Battery capacity (kWh) (32)808510300
 Certified energy consumption (kWh/100 km) (32)514413153
 Real-world energy consumption (kWh/100 km) (2)3883344
 Indirect CO2 emissions—certified energy consumption (g CO2/km) (32)151175 
 Indirect CO2 emissions—real-world energy consumption (g CO2/km) (2)11290