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Table 2 Unexpected effects that impact fitness in Brassica rapa after GE oilseed rape is crossed into other genetic backgrounds or which unexpectedly emerged in persisting transgenic populations

From: Risk assessment of genetically engineered plants that can persist and propagate in the environment

InsecticidalB. rapa plants that were crossed with Bt oilseed rape produced 1.4 times more seeds than the wild type[56]
Herbicide toleranceThe properties of some feral transgenic oilseed rape plants seem to have changed, e.g. by showing higher growth and becoming perennial. Climate conditions may be an impact factor for these effects[57]
Herbicide tolerancePopulations of transgenic plants can persist in the environment without additional gene flow or factors for specific selection[52,53,54,55,56,57,58]