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Fig. 4 | Environmental Sciences Europe

Fig. 4

From: The activation of antioxidant and apoptosis pathways involved in damage of human proximal tubule epithelial cells by PM2.5 exposure

Fig. 4

Intracellular ROS overproduction following treatment with PM2.5 in HK-2 cells. ac Intracellular levels of ROS were assessed using DCFH-DA staining followed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Incubation with various concentrations of PM2.5 (0–400 μg/mL) induced intracellular ROS overproduction in a dose-dependent manner. PM2.5 induces the activation of antioxidant pathway

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