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Fig. 1 | Environmental Sciences Europe

Fig. 1

From: The activation of antioxidant and apoptosis pathways involved in damage of human proximal tubule epithelial cells by PM2.5 exposure

Fig. 1

PM2.5 induces cell damage and cytotoxicity in HK-2 cells. a Representative images showing the morphology of HK-2 cells treated with PM2.5 (0–400 μg/mL) for 24 h as observed using an optical microscope. b Cell viability of HK-2 cells was measured using CCK-8 assay. c LDH release, HK-2 cells were treated with 25, 50, 100, 200 or 400 μg/mL of PM2.5 for 24 h. d Western blot analysis of the expressions of indicated protein (KIM-1) in HK-2 cells after treatment with different concentrations of PM2.5 for 24 h, or at varying time intervals using 200 μg/mL of PM2.5. Intensity of protein bands was quantified using ImageJ software and normalized to that of GAPDH. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 and ***p < 0.001 vs. control or 0 h

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