Skip to main content

Table 5 Values for VSL in 2016 (with the range in parentheses) for the individual countries (EU and non-EU) studied

From: Costs and benefits of agricultural ammonia emission abatement options for compliance with European air quality regulations

CountriesVSL (M€)
Luxembourg7.73 (3.87–11.60)
Norway5.18 (2.59–7.77)
Ireland4.95 (2.48–7.43)
Switzerland4.59 (2.29–6.88)
Austria4.19 (2.09–6.28)
Denmark4.10 (2.05–6.15)
Netherlands4.03 (2.02–6.05)
Sweden4.00 (2.00–6.00)
Germany3.93 (1.96–5.89)
Belgium3.86 (1.93–5.79)
United Kingdom3.68 (1.84–5.52)
Finland3.68 (1.84–5.52)
France3.44 (1.72–5.16)
Italy3.32 (1.66–4.97)
Spain3.10 (1.55–4.65)
Estonia3.03 (1.52–4.55)
Czech Republic2.96 (1.48–4.44)
Slovenia2.93 (1.47–4.40)
Cyprus2.92 (1.46–4.38)
Turkey2.88 (1.44–4.31)
Portugal2.76 (1.38–4.14)
Latvia2.68 (1.34–4.02)
Hungary2.63 (1.31–3.94)
Slovakia2.60 (1.30–3.90)
Romania2.52 (1.26–3.78)
Poland2.50 (1.25–3.74)
Greece2.45 (1.22–3.67)
Croatia2.31 (1.16–3.47)
Bulgaria2.06 (1.03–3.09)
Serbia1.92 (0.96–2.87)
Montenegro1.91 (0.96–2.87)
Ukraine1.91 (0.95–2.86)
Lebanon1.66 (0.83–2.48)
North Macedonia1.58 (0.79–2.38)
Jordan1.37 (0.68–2.05)
Bosnia and Herzegovina1.32 (0.66–1.98)
Albania1.27 (0.64–1.91)
Georgia1.24 (0.62–1.87)