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Fig. 11 | Environmental Sciences Europe

Fig. 11

From: Freshwater ecosystems profit from activated carbon-based wastewater treatment across various levels of biological organisation in a short timeframe

Fig. 11

Number of taxa (red, blue) and sensitive taxa (shaded) before and after the WWTP upgrade. Mean values and standard deviations are shown. Samples were taken two times per year in spring and autumn before (red and black shaded in red; spring and autumn 2011, 2012, 2013) and after (blue and black shaded in blue; spring and autumn 2014, 2015, 2016) the WWTP upgrade. S0: reference site upstream of the effluent; S2: directly downstream of the effluent. Definition of sensitive taxa according to assessment procedures from Austria [56, 57]. The assessment of the macrobenthos community is generally based on [58, 59]

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