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Table 2 Overview of relevant systematic groups assessed via standardized test guidelines in the laboratory indicating their current and potential ability to cover the exposure paths via food, the most relevant pathway for effects of systemic pesticides or transgenic plants

From: Food-related exposure to systemic pesticides and pesticides from transgenic plants: evaluation of aquatic test strategies

Systematic groupSuggested max. study duration (days)Ability to assess for effects as a consequence of exposure through food
Rotifers63Adaptation possible through the application of fine particles (pollen and ground leaf material) as food
Crustaceans
 Daphniidae21Adaptation possible through the application of fine particles (pollen and ground leaf material) as food
Need to revisit validity criteria
 Gammaridae8Adaptation possible through the application of leaf litter as food
Need to revisit exposure duration and response variables
 Dogielinotidae56Adaptation possible through the application of leaf litter as food
Insects
 Diptera65Adaptation possible through the application of fine particles (pollen and ground leaf material) as food
 Ephemeroptera28Adaptation possible through the application of fine particles (pollen and ground leaf material) as food if relevant for the feeding group of the selected species
Need to revisit exposure duration and response variables depending on species life cycle
 Plecoptera8Adaptation possible through the application of fine particles (pollen and ground leaf material) as food if relevant for the feeding group of the selected species
Need to revisit exposure duration and response variables depending on species life cycle
 Trichoptera21Adaptation possible through the application of fine particles (pollen and ground leaf material) as food if relevant for the feeding group of the selected species
Need to revisit exposure duration and response variables depending on species life cycle
Molluscs30Adaptation possible through the application of fine particles (pollen and ground leaf material) as food
Need to revisit exposure duration and response variables depending on species life cycle
  1. The list focuses exclusively on chronic test guidelines considering the likely high relevance of sublethal effects