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Fig. 1 | Environmental Sciences Europe

Fig. 1

From: A holistic approach is key to protect water quality and monitor, assess and manage chemical pollution of European surface waters

Fig. 1

The SOLUTIONS conceptual framework (center) [17] is an overlay of the DPSIR-causal framework [14] (outer circle) and the solution-focused risk assessment paradigm [16]. DPSIR’s “R” closely relates to the solution-focused approach, and shows opportunities to protect and limit pollution via all management options [18]. The 3rd WFD-management cycle (planned for 2022–2027) can define Responses based on the outcomes of monitoring data and other insights gained from the 2nd DPSIR-cycle (2016–2021)

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