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Table 2 Contributions of PM and surfactants to increasing the CYP bioavailability in soil

From: Reduction of soil contamination by cypermethrin residues using phytoremediation with Plantago major and some surfactants

Days Treatment CYP mg kg−1 % Removal % Contribution
1 C: CCSS 9.86 a 1.40 0.0
T1: CCS 9.47 b 5.30 Microorganisms (T1 − C) 3.90
T2: CCSS + PM 9.07 c 9.30 PM (T2 − C) 7.9
T3: CCS + PM 8.24 d 17.60 Combination (T3 − C) 16.20
T4: CCS + PM +SiO2 6.92 g 30.80 SiO2 (T4 − T3) 13.20
T5: CCS + PM +HA 7.74 e 22.60 HA (T5 − T3) 5.00
T6: CCS + PM + HPβCD 7.23 f 27.70 HPβCD (T6 − T3) 10.10
T7: CCS + PM + Tw 80 7.98 de 20.20 Tw 80 (T7 − T3) 2.60
3 C: CCSS 9.34 a 6.60 0.0
T1: CCS 8.46 b 15.40 Microorganisms (T1 − C) 8.80
T2: CCSS + PM 8.07 c 19.30 PM (T2 − C) 12.70
T3: CCS + PM 7.39 d 26.10 Combination (T3 − C) 19.50
T4: CCS + PM +SiO2 6.29 f 37.10 SiO2 (T4 − T3) 11.00
T5: CCS + PM +HA 6.90 e 31.00 HA (T5 − T3) 4.90
T6: CCS + PM + HPβCD 6.76 e 32.40 HPβCD (T6 − T3) 6.30
T7: CCS + PM + Tw 80 7.08 d 29.20 Tw 80 (T7 − T3) 3.10
7 C: CCSS 8.79 a 12.10 0.0
T1: CCS 7.40 b 26.00 Microorganisms (T1 − C) 13.90
T2: CCSS + PM 7.17 b 28.30 PM (T2 − C) 16.20
T3: CCS + PM 6.70 c 33.00 Combination (T3 − C) 20.90
T4: CCS + PM +SiO2 5.21 g 47.90 SiO2 (T4 − T3) 14.90
T5: CCS + PM +HA 5.91 e 40.90 HA (T5 − T3) 7.90
T6: CCS + PM + HPβCD 5.53 f 44.70 HPβCD (T6 − T3) 11.70
T7: CCS + PM + Tw 80 6.16 d 38.40 Tw 80 (T7 − T3) 5.40
10 C: CCSS 7.64 a 23.60 0.0
T1: CCS 5.97 b 40.30 Microorganisms (T1 − C) 16.70
T2: CCSS + PM 5.74 b 42.60 PM (T2 − C) 19.00
T3: CCS + PM 5.30 c 47.00 Combination (T3 − C) 23.40
T4: CCS + PM +SiO2 3.57 f 64.30 SiO2 (T4 − T3) 17.30
T5: CCS + PM +HA 4.10 e 59.00 HA (T5 − T3) 12.00
T6: CCS + PM + HPβCD 4.01 e 59.90 HPβCD (T6 − T3) 12.90
T7: CCS + PM + Tw 80 4.74 d 52.60 Tw 80 (T7 − T3) 5.60
14 C: CCSS 6.80 a 32.00 0.0
T1: CCS 3.84 b 61.60 Microorganisms (T1 − C) 29.60
T2: CCSS + PM 3.71 b 62.90 PM (T2 − C) 30.90
T3: CCS + PM 3.16 c 68.40 Combination (T3 − C) 36.40
T4: CCS + PM +SiO2 1.58 f 84.20 SiO2 (T4 − T3) 15.80
T5: CCS + PM +HA 2.22 e 77.80 HA (T5 − T3) 9.40
T6: CCS + PM + HPβCD 2.05 e 79.50 HPβCD (T6 − T3) 11.10
T7: CCS + PM + Tw 80 2.73 d 72.70 Tw 80 (T7 − T3) 4.30
  1. Different letters represent significant differences (Duncan’s test significant difference test at p < 0.05) among all treatments
  2. CCSS, CYP-contaminated sterilized soil; CCS, CYP-contaminated soil; PM, Plantago major; SiO2, liquid silicon dioxide; HPβCD, 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin; HA, liquid humic acid; Tw80, Tween 80