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Table 3 Number and percentage (%) of pesticides detected in grass samples from playgrounds (n = 71)

From: Pesticide contamination and associated risk factors at public playgrounds near intensively managed apple and wine orchards

Pesticides/pesticide classes   Isarco valley (N = 10) Adige valley (N = 20) Low Adige (N = 20) Venosta (N = 21) p-value
Contaminated playgrounds   4 (40.00) 8 (40.00) 4 (20.00) 16 (76.19) 0.003
    Post hoc test Low Adige: Venosta 0.003
Other comparisons n.s.
Playgrounds with  
 No pesticides 6 (60) 12 (60) 16 (80) 5 (23.8) 0.005
 One pesticide 2 (20) 5 (25) 0 8 (38.1)
 Two pesticides 0 2 (10) 1 (5) 5 (23.8)
 Three pesticides 1 (10) 1 (5) 3 (15) 2 (9.5)
 Four pesticides 1 (10) 0 0 1 (4.8)
    Post hoc test Low Adige: Venosta < 0.001
Other comparisons n.s.
Pesticide classes
Herbicides  Oxadiazon 0 0 0 1 (4.76) 0.999
Insecticides   1 (10) 4 (20) 4 (20) 13 (61.9) 0.004
    Post hoc test Venosta: all other regions 0.022
Other comparisons n.s.
   Phosmet 0 4 (20.00) 1 (5.00) 13 (61.90) < 0.001
  Post hoc test Isarco valley: Venosta 0.004
Adige: Venosta 0.002
Low Adige: Venosta < 0.001
Other comparisons n.s.
 Imidacloprid 1 (10.00) 0 2 (10.00) 0 0.719
 Chlorpyrifos-methyl 0 0 1 (5.00) 0 0.704
 Methoxyfenozide 0 0 1 (5.00) 0 0.704
 Cypermethrin 0 0 1 (5.00) 0 0.704
Fungicides   4 (40) 4 (20) 2 (10) 11 (52.4) 0.015
    Post hoc test Venosta: all other regions < 0.001
  Other comparisons n.s.
 Fluazinam 2 (20.00) 4 (20.00) 2 (10.00) 10 (47.62) 0.048
    Post hoc test Low Adige: Venosta 0.015
  Other comparisons n.s.
 Penthiopyrad 4 (40.00) 0 1 (5.00) 1 (4.76) 0.004
    Post hoc test Isarco valley: Adige valley 0.046
 Difenoconazole 2 (20.00) 0 0 0 0.018
 Dodine 0 0 1 (5.00) 0 0.704
 Penconazole 0 0 0 2 (9.52) 0.501
 Tetraconazole 0 0 0 1 (4.76) 0.999
Disinfectant
   Benzalkonium chloride 0 4 (20.00) 0 0 0.018
Preservative agent
   2-Phenylphenol 0 0 1 (5.00) 0 0.704
Pesticides with EA 2 (20) 5 (25) 4 (20) 15 (71.4) 0.002
  Post hoc test Isarco: Venosta 0.036
Adige: Venosta 0.014
Low Adige: Venosta 0.009
Other comparisons n.s.