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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of pesticides detected in grass samples of playgrounds (n = 71)

From: Pesticide contamination and associated risk factors at public playgrounds near intensively managed apple and wine orchards

Pesticides and pesticide classes Total (N = 71) NEAR (N = 34) FAR (N = 37) p value
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Number of contaminated playgrounds*
 Present 32 (45.1) 21 (61.8) 11 (29.7) 0.013
Playgrounds with
 No pesticides 39 (54.9) 13 (38.2) 26 (70.3) 0.043
 One pesticide 15 (21.1) 8 (23.5) 7 (18.9)
 Two pesticides 8 (11.3) 6 (17.7) 2 (5.4)
 Three pesticides 7 (9.9) 5 (14.7) 2 (5.4)
 Four pesticides 2 (2.8) 2 (5.9) 0
Detected pesticides
 Herbicides
  Oxadiazon 1 (1.4) 1 (2.9) 0 0.479
 Insecticides* 22 (31.0) 14 (41.2) 8 (21.6) 0.128
  Phosmet* 18 (25.4) 11 (32.4) 7 (18.9) 0.305
  Imidacloprid 3 (4.2) 2 (5.9) 1 (2.7) 0.604
  Chlorpyrifos-methyl 1 (1.4) 1 (2.9) 0 0.479
  Methoxyfenozide 1 (1.4) 1 (2.9) 0 0.479
  Cypermethrin 1 (1.4) 1 (2.9) 0 0.479
 Fungicides* 21 (29.6) 17 (50) 4 (10.8) < 0.001
  Fluazinam* 18 (25.4) 14 (41.2) 4 (10.8) 0.008
  Penthiopyrad 6 (8.5) 6 (17.7) 0 0.009
  Difenoconazole 2 (2.8) 2 (5.9) 0 0.223
  Dodine 1 (1.4) 1 (2.9) 0 0.479
  Penconazole 2 (2.8) 1 (2.9) 1 (2.7) 0.999
  Tetraconazole 1 (1.4) 1 (2.9) 0 0.479
 Disinfectant
  Benzalkonium chloride 4 (5.6) 1 (2.9) 3 (8.1) 0.616
 Preservative agent
  2-Phenylphenol 1 (1.4) 0 1 (2.7) 0.999
 Presence of pesticides with endocrine activity* 26 (36.6) 17 (50) 9 (24.3) 0.046
  1. Grass samples of playgrounds were stratified by distance from agricultural fields: ≤ 50 m = NEAR, > 50 m = FAR. All p-values are by Fisher’s-exact test unless indicated with an *asterisk (Chi squared test)