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Table 1 Measured metformin concentrations in medium and tissue, mortality, biometric data, biochemical, developmental and behavioural parameters of brown trout larvae exposed to metformin

From: Does the antidiabetic drug metformin affect embryo development and the health of brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario)?

Treatment (nominal metformin concentrations (µg/L)) 7 °C 11 °C
0 1 10 100 1000 0 1 10 100 1000
Measured metformin water concentrations (µg/L) < LoQ 0.8 ± 0.2 8.1 ± 0.5 97.0 ± 11.4 950.9 ± 108.1 < LoQ 0.8 ± 0.2 8.6 ± 0.9 98.7 ± 5.2 921.1 ± 106.4
Metformin tissue concentration (ng/g) wet weight < LoQ < LoQ 4 42 56 < LoQ < LoQ 5 42 234
Mortality (%) 2.0 ± 1.6 0.7 ± 0.9 1.3 ± 0.9 1.3 ± 0.9 1.3 ± 0.9 3.3 ± 2.5 1.3 ± 0.9 4.0 ± 2.8 2.7 ± 0.9 0.7 ± 0.9
Heart rate (bpm) 77.4 ± 7.0 n.e. n.e. n.e. 74.4 ± 6.2 98.2 ± 12.2 n.e. n.e. n.e. 100.6 ± 10.8
Mean time to hatch (dpf) 54.5 ± 2.5 54.8 ± 2.7 53.9 ± 2.8 54.1 ± 3.0 54.6 ± 2.8 51.4 ± 1.2 51.4 ± 1.4 51.4 ± 1.4 51.0 ± 1.1 51.2 ± 1.3
Body weight (g) 0.545 ± 0.09 0.506 ± 0.09 0.480 ± 0.09* 0.491 ± 0.09* 0.566 ± 0.09 0.959 ± 0.26 0.769 ± 0.29* 0.902 ± 0.25 0.885 ± 0.23 0.829 ± 0.26
Body length (cm) 3.5 ± 0.2 3.4 ± 0.2 3.5 ± 0.2 3.5 ± 0.2 3.6 ± 0.2 4.2 ± 0.4 4.2 ± 0.5 4.2 ± 0.4 4.3 ± 0.4 4.2 ± 0.4
Hepatic glycogen content (µg/µL) 9.75 ± 3.94 14.75 ± 1.77 14.19 ± 3.84 13.38 ± 2.97 12.07 ± 5.65 10.07 ± 4.55 15.28 ± 2.13* 13.25 ± 2.41 11.04 ± 3.60 11.78 ± 3.37
Hsp70 level (rel. grey value) 1.05 ± 0.24 0.99 ± 0.13 1.07 ± 0.20 1.03 ± 0.19 0.97 ± 0.19 1.04 ± 0.27 0.95 ± 0.25 0.97 ± 0.15 0.87 ± 0.23 0.88 ± 0.21
Total distance moved (cm) 2119.49 ± 664.19 2321.80 ± 1020.74 2407.21 ± 1034.18 2218.53 ± 1087.29 2321.57 ± 695.89 1414.14 ± 889.91 1337.55 ± 388.98 1461.24 ± 515.14 1464.91 ± 582.54 1437.23 ± 515.47
Mean velocity (cm/s) 1.96 ± 0.62 2.15 ± 0.95 2.23 ± 0.96 2.06 ± 1.01 2.15 ± 0.64 1.31 ± 0.82 1.24 ± 0.36 1.35 ± 0.48 1.36 ± 0.54 1.33 ± 0.48
  1. All data except for the analytical tissue measurements are shown as arithmetic mean ± standard deviation (SD). For the measurement of the tissue concentration, details of the method variation are given in Additional file 1: Table S4. Heart rate was only evaluated for the negative control and the highest metformin concentration, so no evaluation took place for 1, 10 and 100 µg/L. Asterisks (*) indicate significant differences compared to the respective control at the p = 0.05 level
  2. LoQ limit of quantification, n.e. not evaluated, bpm beats per minute, dpf days post fertilisation