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Table 5 Malformation rates at 96 hpf for main and additional sampling sites with three runs per time point

From: The importance of sediments in ecological quality assessment of stream headwaters: embryotoxicity along the Nidda River and its tributaries in Central Hesse, Germany

  Malformation rate (%)
July 15 November 15 January 16–April 16 July 16
Control (N) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 N1 2.42 0 7.14* 15.52* 12.10* 16.67* 2.0 12.10* 0.93 1.19 10.48* 0
 N2 3.13 0 5.36* 3.57 7.26* 8.62* 1.85 0 0 15.74* 9.68* 1.56
 N3 10.15 4.03 9.38* 6.25* 0.86 6.25* 9.00* 9.68* 1.67 11.11* 0 3.13
 N4 0 2.34 0 3.91 2.68 0.83 9.52* 0 0.78 1.61 0.78 0
 N5 0 0 3.23 7.03* 2.50 1.61 4.46 3.45 1.72 2.42 3.45 0
 N6 3.23 0 7.81* 3.33 6.45* 3.13 3.85 0 0 2.34 0 0
Control (H) 0 0 0.78 0 0 0 1.56 0 0 0 0 0
 H1 6.25 3.91 6.25 3.70 3.33 0 0.78 0 0 3.91 7.81* 3.13
 H2 4.84 5.47 0 4.17 5.56 2.78 20.24* 0 8.33* 2.34 1.61 0.78
 H3 2.42 13.79 21.0 0 0.83 0 0 0 0.81 2.50 3.45 9.17*
 H4 0.81 0.78 0 0 0 0 0 2.34 10.94* 5.47 1.61 4.69
Control (U) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.56 0 0 0 0
 U1 3.70 1.61 3.13 0 0.93 0 0 0 0 0.78 4.69 0.81
 U2 0 0 0.78 0 0 0.83 4.84 3.57 6.67 3.23 1.56 0.78
 U3 15.74* 4.63 1.56 10.42* 1.61 4.31 2.50 0 0 3.91 6.25 3.13
 U4 1.56 2.42 2.34 0.89 0 0.93 2.34 0 0 2.34 2.34 3.13
  March 17 June 17 September 17
Control (N) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 N1 2.08 0 0 2.17 0 2.08 0 0 0
 N2.1 0 0 0 3.13 1.04 6.52 0 0 0
 N2.2 0 0 0 1.04 3.13 0 0 0 1.14
 N2.3 0 0 0 5.21 4.17 2.08 0 1.09 7.14*
 N2.4 1.04 0 0 0 2.08 0 1.25 0 0
Control (H2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 H1 1.09 3.13 0 6.25 0 0 2.38 1.04 0
 H2 0 1.04 1.04 0 0 0 0 0 3.13
 H2-DE 2.34 0 1.04 0 0 0 1.04 3.13 2.08
 H2-F 1.56 9.78* 1.04 13.54* 4.17 5.43 0 7.61 0
 H2-B 21.09* 25.00* 20.83* 16.30* 14.58* 23.96* 4.17 3.26 1.04
 H2.1 2.08 0 3.13 2.27 0 3.13 0 1.09 0
 H2.2 5.21 1.09 7.29 2.08 0 0 0 0 1.0
 H2.3 8.33* 4.17 1.04 0 0 2.08 0 1.04 0
Control (H2a) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.47 0 1.32
 H2a oh 3.13 0 0 3.57 3.13 5.43 2.63 0 0
 H2a-DE 0.78 1.04 0 0 4.17 1.04 1.19 0 0
 H2a uh1 3.13 0 0 4.17 5.21 3.13 0 25.00* 0
 H2a uh2 11.96* 3.13 1.04 0 0 0 7.81 0 13.75*
 H2a uh3 1.09 9.38* 0 4.17 0 0 0 21.25* 2.38
 H2a uh4 0 1.04 0 0 0 0 0 18.75* 0
  1. * Significant differences to control treatments; likelihood ratio χ2, Fisher’s exact test (p < 0.05), correction with sequential Bonferroni–Holm method p < α