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Table 1 Overview of some combinatorial effects of Bt toxins known to enhance toxicity

From: Possible health impacts of Bt toxins and residues from spraying with complementary herbicides in genetically engineered soybeans and risk assessment as performed by the European Food Safety Authority EFSA

Description of combinatorial effects known to enhance toxicity of Bt toxins Some references
Availability of specific co-factors Broderick et al. [12]
Parallel or successive exposure to biotic and/or abiotic stressors Kramarz et al. [21], Kramarz et al. [22], Khalique and Ahmed [23], Singh et al. [24], Zhu et al. [25], Mason et al. [14], Reardon et al. [26]
Delaying degradation of Bt toxins by plant enzymes (protease inhibitors) Zhang et al. [29], Zhu et al. [30], Pardo Lopez et al. [31]
Other Bt toxins Sharma et al. [27], Tabashnik et al. [28]