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Table 2 Examples of in vivo bioassays applied by certain member states within aquatic monitoring programmes

From: The European technical report on aquatic effect-based monitoring tools under the water framework directive

Organism Test item Endpoint Species Exposure
Bacteria w, ws, e, p Bioluminescence Aliivibrio fischeri (f/m) 5 to 30 min.
Enzyme activity Arthrobacter globiformis (f) 2 h
Algae w, e, p Growth Phaeodactylum tricornutum (m) 72 h
Skeletonema costatum (m)
Growth Desmodesmus subspicatus (f) 72 h
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (f)
Growth Ceramium tenuicorne (m) 7 days
Plants w, e, p Growth Lemna minor (f) 7 days
ws Growth Myriophyllum aquaticum (f) 10 days
Rotifera w, e, p Mortality Brachionus plicatilis 24 to 48 h
Crustacea (amphipods) ws Mortality Corophium spp. (and other amphipods) (m) 10 days
w, e, p Mortality Artemia franciscana (m) 24 h, 14 days
Mortality Acartia tonsa (m) 96 h
Tigriopus fulvus (m)
Mobility, mortality, reproduction Daphnia magna (f) 24/48 h, 21 days
Cerodaphnia dubia (f)
Nematoda ws Mortality, fertility, reproduction Caenorhabditis elegans (f) 96 h
Annelida ws Mortality, reproduction Lumbriculus variegatus (f) 28 days
Insecta w, ws Mortality, reproduction Chironomus riparius (f) 48 h, 28 days
Bivalvia w, e, p Development Crassostrea gigas (m) 24 to 72 h
Mytilus galloprovincialis (m)
Tapes philippinarum (m)
Echinodermata w, e, p Fertilisation Paracentrotus lividus (m) ≤72 h
Development Sphaerechinus granularis (m)
Polychaeta ws Mortality Hediste diversicolor (m) 10 days
Vertebrata (fishes) w, e, p Mortality and genotoxic damage Danio rerio (and embryos of other species) (f) 96 h, 28 days
Dicentrarchus labrax (m)
  1. w, water; e, elutriate; p, pore water; ws, whole sediment; f, freshwater; m, brackish and marine.