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Table 1 Overview of all 25 market-relevant nanomaterials listed currently in the DaNa knowledge base

From: Environmental impacts of nanomaterials: providing comprehensive information on exposure, transport and ecotoxicity - the project DaNa2.0

Nanomaterial Environmentally relevant application or product with likely release to the environment Anticipated most relevant release path/way Studied organisms/cells/cell lines considered in the knowledge base at
Aluminium oxide Abrasive and polishing agents Aerosols Mud tube worm, shrimp, earthworm, basket shell, nematode, bacteria, daphnids, zebrafish, thale cress, rye, lettuce, corn, carrots, soy, cabbage, cucumber, radish, rapeseed, ryegrass
Barium sulphate Contrast agent Waste water No ecotoxicity studies available
Carbon black Printing ink, toner Aerosol Common mussel, brown algae (toothed wrack), fruit fly, amphipods
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) All applications anticipated so far involve CNT embedded in a matrix Rainbow trout, earthworm, lugworm, tomato, cabbage, carrot, onion, radish, rape, lettuce, ryegrass, corn and cucumber
Cellulose Wound dressing Solid waste Bacteria, fungi, daphnids, fish, algae, rainbow trout liver cells
Cerium dioxide Diesel additive Car exhaust Bacteria, algae, zebrafish (embryo, adult), daphnids, rainbow trout liver cells, soybean
Copper and copper oxide Wood preservatives Waste Bacteria, protozoa, worms, snail, frog embryo, zebrafish, green algae, radish, ryegrass, duckweed, corn
Diamond Abrasive and polishing agents Aerosol Nematodes, frog embryos, daphnids
Fullerenes Cosmetics, sports equipment, lubricant Direct release to surface or waste water Bacteria, algae, daphnids, common mussel blood cells, oyster (larvae, adult, liver cells), zebrafish embryo
Gold Diagnostics and therapy Waste water Bacteria, daphnids, blue mussel, basket shell, zebrafish embryo, rainbow trout liver cell, cucumber, lettuce
Graphene No applications on the market, yet Bacteria, nematodes, zebrafish embryo, tomato, spinach, cabbage
Indium tin oxide (ITO) All applications anticipated so far involve ITO embedded in a matrix Various aquatic organisms (vertebrates, algae)
Iron and iron oxides Ground and waste water remediation Intended release to ground water Bacteria, medaka embryos, rainbow trout gill cells, pumpkin, lima bean, ryegrass
Platinum Catalytic exhaust converter Aerosol formation Zebrafish embryo, rainbow trout gill cells
Quantum dots (QD) All applications anticipated so far involve quantum dots embedded in a matrix Bacteria, algae, daphnids, zebrafish embryo, rainbow trout
Silicon dioxide Skin care, textiles, therapeutics Surface and waste water Bacteria, green algae, mussel blood cells
Silver Textiles, antimicrobial applications Wash-off, release of ions from silver-coated surfaces Bacteria, fungi, green algae, daphnids, zebrafish embryo, medaka cell line
Strontium carbonate Pyrotechniques Aerosol No ecotoxicity studies available
Titanium dioxide Sunscreen, surface coating Direct release to surface waters, run-off from coated surfaces Bacteria, daphnids, nematodes, lugworm, mussel, snail, woodlice, rainbow trout, zebrafish (embryo and adult), green algae, onion, willow, tobacco
Titanium nitride All applications anticipated so far involve TiN embedded in a matrix Rainbow trout gill and intestinal cells
Tungsten carbide (WC) WC nanoparticles are used for tool production and are tightly bound in the tools Rainbow trout gill cells
Tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) WC-Co nanoparticles are used for tool production and are tightly bound in the tools Rainbow trout gill cells
Zeolite/clays Fertiliser Soil No ecotoxicity studies available
Zinc oxide Sunscreen, textiles Direct release to surface waters, wash-off Bacteria, protozoa, woodlice, zebrafish, rainbow trout, daphnids, green algae, ryegrass, corn, soybean, zucchini, thale cress
Zirconium dioxide All applications anticipated so far involve ZrO2 embedded in a matrix Bacteria, algae, zebrafish embryo
  1. Relevant environmental applications, the anticipated most relevant release path into the environment and the test organisms used in the studies were considered in this summary. As the whole ENM life cycle was not considered, disposal as relevant release at end of life was left out.