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Table 2 Critical issues, guidelines for sustainable use of wood as energy source, and stakeholders to be involved

From: Research findings and decision making: the case of renewable energy

Elements of the supply chain Critical issues (as result of scientific research) Guidelines Target audience Possible mediator
Forestry operations Amount of withdrawable woody biomass Define the amount of available biomass according to the carrying capacity of the forest ecosystem Forest managers and wood cutters Forestry consortium (including forest planners, foresters, and forestry firms)
Fossil fuel consumption (chainsaws and other machinery) Choose the most efficient harvesting system (e.g., debranching before cable logging helps to reduce fuel consumption)
Impacts on the forest ecosystems (e.g., oil emission, clearance, soil erosion) Follow sustainable forestry criteria (e.g., selective cutting instead of clear-cutting)
Choice of wood-burning appliances Inefficient combustion leads to higher emission Develop new and more efficient technologies Boilers' producers Producers' association
PM air emissions Install appropriate emission control devices
Oversizing can lead to a request for more biomass than what is needed and what is available in the area Prefer distributed generation instead of big plants
Wood burning Inefficient combustion leads to higher emission Prefer chip boilers, pellet, and wood modern stoves instead of open fireplaces. Users Citizens'/consumers' association
Pollutant air emissions Substitute old appliances with new ones (safer and more efficient)
Carelessness of the log wood-burning appliance causes high emission pollutants Frequent ash removal
Routine maintenance of the flue
Correct use of stoves leads to a reduction in emissions Proper firing modes
Pollutant emission also depends on the fuel type Use forest wood instead of wood waste
Burn only dried wood (R.H. < 50)
Prefer hardwood and low-resin wood instead of softwood
Wood log/chip/pellet transport implies fossil fuel consumption Buy wood from a short supply chain