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Table 4 CO 2 -equivalent emissions due to the Li-ion battery production

From: Electric cars: technical characteristics and environmental impacts

Source CO 2 -equivalents kg/kWh battery Battery chemistry investigated Remarks
Notter et al. 2010, [61] Althaus 2011 52 LiMn2O4 Bottom-up LCA approach (Althaus 2011)
Ishihara et al. 2002 [63] 75 Li-Ni-Co and Li-Mn Bottom-up LCA approach (Althaus 2011)
Zackrisson et al. 2010 [64] 166 LiFePO4 Top-down modeling from producers (Althaus 2011)
Frischknecht 2011 [65] 134 Not specified Top-down modeling from producers (Althaus 2011)
Majeau-Bettez et al. 2011 [33] 250 LiFePO4 Industry data considered (remark by Majeau-Bettez)
200 LiFe0.4CO0.2Mn0.4O0.2
Data range presented by five different groups on the 43rd discussion forum on LCA, Zurich, 2011 (reviewed by Frischknecht and Flury 2011) [67] (66 to 291)a diverse -