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Table 3 Energy efficiency of the propulsion technologies available to the market (in percentages)

From: Electric cars: technical characteristics and environmental impacts

Propulsion technology WTT (%) TTW (%) WTW (%) WTW calculated (%)
ICE     
Petrol (gasoline) 79a, 86b 16a, 23k 10o, 13a, 12 to 14p, 14q, 20r 13 to 20
Petrol (gasoline) full electric hybrid 79a, 86b 30k, 37a 15o, 17 to 22p, 29a,q 24 to 32
Diesel 76c, 82a, 84b 23a, 28k 13o, 16 to 18p, 19a, 25r 18 to 24
LPG (propane + butane) 88d, 93e 16e 11o, 15e 14 to 20
petrol ref. + 6l
CNG (methane) 65 to 86f, 85e 16e 12o, 14e, 21r 10 to 22
petrol ref. + 9m
FCV     
H2 fuel cell (gaseous H2 stored in pressure tanks) 37g, 40c, 53h 50a, 56k 20 to 23p, 22a, 23s, 29q 19 to 30
BEV     
Electric car (literature)   73k, 80 to 90n 59 to 80t, 74k  
Electric car minimumi 15i 73k   11
Electric car optimumi 59 to 85j 90n   53 to 77