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Table 5 Studies assessing exposure of NTOs and the adverse effects of GMPs on NTOs

From: Scrutinizing the current practice of the environmental risk assessment of GM maize applications for cultivation in the EU

GMP Exposure assessed in ERA Lab studies Greenhouse studies Field studies Tritrophic studies Species of conservation concern/aesthetical/cultural value
Maize MON810 - Y - Y - -
Maize Bt 11 Y Y - Y - - (M, O)e
Maize 1507 Y Ya - Y - Y (M)
Maize NK603 - Y Y - Y -
Maize 59122 Y Y - Y Yd Y (M)
Maize 1507 × NK603 - Y, Nb - Y - -
Maize NK603 × MON810 - Y, Nc - - - - (M)
  1. Only field studies with the respective GMP were considered.
  2. Lab studies, with isolated proteins/parts of the GMP; greenhouse studies and field studies, with whole plants; Y, study conducted by the applicant or by order of the applicant; N, reference to assessment in other applications;'-', no data presented or applicant referred only to the published literature; M, Monarch butterfly; O, other.
  3. aThree of the nine studies cited are missing in the application; breference to a single-event application of maize 1507; creference to single-event applications of maize MON810 and maize NK603; dstudy not attached to the application; ereference to published studies, no toxicological studies submitted by the applicant.