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Table 1 Methods of the BINATS survey of the indicator groups habitat structures, vascular plants, butterflies, and grasshoppers [48]

From: Setup, efforts and practical experiences of a monitoring program for genetically modified plants - an Austrian case study for oilseed rape and maize

  Habitat structures Vascular plants Butterflies Grasshoppers
Transect cross - 20 m (length) × 2 m (width) × 4 (transect axes) 20 m (length) × 5 m (width) × 4 (transect axes) 10 m (length) × 5 m (width) × 4 (transect axes)
Surveyed area/transect cross - 160 m2 400 m2 200 m2
Surveyed area per test area 625 m × 625 m 1,600 m2 4,000 m2 2,000 m2
Date of inquiry Beginning of April until the end of October Spring: 15.04. until 31.05. Middle of July until middle of August (9 A.M. until 5 P.M.) Middle of July until end of August (9 A.M. until 7 P.M.)
   Summer: 01.08. until 30.09.   
Number of inquiries 1 2 1 1
Time for survey Unlimited: complete compilation Unlimited: complete compilation Max. walking pace: 3 km/h, additional 5 min survey 8 min/10 m transect
Used literature for determination Red Data Book of the Austrian endangered biotopes [5053] Austrian Excursion Flora [64] Butterfly field guides [6567] Grasshopper field guides [6871], grasshopper sound recordings (Panrok, unpublished)
Temperature thresholds None None Min. temperature: 13°C Min. temperature: 20°C
    Max. temperature: 36°C  
Subjects of inquiry Type, location and number of habitat structures in the whole test area Species number separately within each habitat structure, abundance of potential hybridisation partners of oilseed rape on an ordinal scale Species number and abundance Species number and abundance
Additional recording of Hybridisation partners of oilseed rape and beets Habitat structures within the transect cross Habitat structures and vegetation, floral visits Habitat structures and height of vegetation